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Ecology :Organisms and population full notes with all doubt clear answer

Ecology
Ecology notes, ecology solution, organisms and population, Ecosystem, Biodiversity and conservation, Environmental Issues

                          Ecology
=> The study of interaction or interrelation of organisms with their environment is called Ecology.

*The term ecology was given by Ernst Haeckel.
* Father of ecology is Reiter.
* Father of indian ecology is R.Mishra .

#Ecology Hierarchy
Macromolecules -> Cells ->Tissue ->Organs -> Organisms ->Population ->Communities -> Ecosystem ->Blome


             Size increased complexity increase.

Organisms
.IT is the smallest unit if hierarchy .
.It may be small , large ,unicellular or multicellular.


Populations
.Group of individual of same species living at one place.


Community
.Group of individual of different species.


Ecosystem
.Ecosystem is a complete , largely self-sustained ecological unit of biosphere.
.Ecosystem is an open system and depends upon solar energy , as its source of energy.

   Biotic communities + Abiotic Communities = Ecosystem

Biome
.Biome is a large terrestrial ecological unit ,characterised by a major vegetation and associated animals.
.A biome has specific kinds of plants and animals species within a geographical area that has distinct climatic condition .
.Biome is identified by its plants species that influence animal life.

species
The largest organisms which are similar in the function behavior and can interbreed called species.

1) Endemic species or Endemism :- These species are found in only a particular area and not found in every area.
e.g:- Kangaroo in australia
         Metasequoia in valley of china.

2) Key stone species :- The species which are less in number but there influence is more.
e.g:- Lion in forest.
        Kangaroo rat in forest.

Landscape 
A landscape is a unit of land , with a natural boundary having a mosaic of patches. These patches represents different ecosystem.

Biosphere
*Biosphere is combination of all the ecosystem , small or big that exist on the earth.
*Biosphere is the global ecosystem .
*Earth is a biosphere.
*Biosphere is the highest level of organisation.

         Organism and its Environment
*The term environment is very wide term.It includes number of abiotic and biotic factors.
*The earth has been divided into major biomes on the basis of annual temperature and precriptions.
*The term environment not  only includes air ,water and land but also physical surrounding and the living organisms.

*Sparrial scale refers to the space in which the organisms react with the environment.
for e.g:- water and soil

*Time scale refers to the time scale with respects to changes in day , month or year.
*Weather refers to the short period over time at a specific area.
*Weather reflects the hourly , daily and weekly.
*Climate refers to the change over long period of time such as a season or a year.
.climate is average weather of an area.
.Climate refers to atmospheric conditions extending over a large geographical area reflects seasonal variations of a region .


*Microcliamte refers to the climate at a local scale in the immediate surrounding of plants and animals.
*Microclimate is generally different from climate of an area.


*Habitat is refers to a specific place locality or a portion of an ecosystem where an organism found.
*A habitat contains many ecological niches and supports a variety of species.
e.g:- Habitat of tuna fish is salt water, that of sparrow is a tree and of a tiger is a forest.


*Microhabitat within a habitat, different areas have special conditions suitable for different organisms. 
e.g:- Tubifex,
        Sharks are found in marine water mainly while gold fish is found in freshwater.

*Life exists not just in a few favorable habitats but even in extreme and harsh habitats.
*Even our intestine is a unique habitat for hundreds of species of microbes.

*The temperature ,water,light, and soil are the key elements that lead to so much variation in the physical and chemical condition of different habitats. 

*Each organism has an invariably defined range of condition that it can tolerate , diversity in the resource it utilizes and a distinct functional role in the ecological system , all these together comprise niche.

 As the aptitude increase , temperature decrease.

*Poikilothermic (exothermic):-They are also called cold blooded animal.
*They can not regulate their body temperature.
eg: amphibians, reptiles,some fishes,etc.

Major Abiotic Factor
1.Temperature
●It is one of the most important factors that influence plants and animals.
●Temperature decrease from the equator towards the poles from plains to the mountain tops.
●Subzero levels in polar areas and heigh altitude >50° c  in tropical deserts in summer.
●Mango trees cannot grows in temperatures country Like Canada and Germany.
●snow leopards are not found in kerela tropical Forest .
●Tuna fish rarely caught beyond tropical latitude in the ocean.
●Temperature affects the kinetic of enzyme and metabolic activity and other physiological functions of living organism.



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