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Physical Education Class 12 ~UNIT - 1 Planning in Sports

Meaning of Planning :
“Planning is a way to systematize, direct and organise the
events or competitions and extract the advantage and benefit
of the available resources.
“Planning is the process of making a sequence of work for a
future line of action”.
The success of Physical education programmes depends upon
efficient staff, food, direction, proper control, well super vision,
good co-ordination and minimize the chances of lapses.

Q.1 Write down the role of the various committees post
tournament
Ans. The following are the role of the various committees after a
tournament.
Publicity Committee: Give reports to media provide
information of expenditure to organizing committee.
Performance of Players, Records, other important
information.
Finance Committee: Mantain a report of the total expenditure
and budget for the tournament.
Transport Committee: Provide information regarding the
proper use of vehicles after the end of the tournment.
Food and accommodation Committee: Repair work for any
damage at accommodation site and providing information of
report of players, officals regarding lodging & boarding
expenditure to organzing committee.
Committee for officials: Giving payment and thanks letter to
all officials.

Ground and Equipment Committee: Repair work for any
damage to ground and submitting all equipment to organizing
committee.
Programme Committee: Providing information about all
participating team to organizing committee and distributing
certificates to all participants and officials with thanks.
First Aid Committee: Submitting all first aid equipment and
information to organising committee.
Prize Distribution Committee: Co-ordinating with decoration
ceremony committee to submit all information and equipment
to organizing Committee.
Organizing Committee: Collecting reports from all
committees, taking note of all the important information and
submitting it to the administrative director.





Q.1. Write down the role of the various committees before a
tournament.
Ans. The following are the roles of the various committees before
a tournament.
Organizing Committee :-
Responsible for organizing and smooth running of the
tournament. It instructs other committee one month prior to
the tournment and assings tasks and responsibilities to them.
Publicity Committee :-
Spread information about the players / teams / officals / event
prior to the tournament, by T.V., Radio, Newspapers, poster
etc.
Marketing Committee :-
Purchasing all equipments and other items required for the
tournament and ensuring their quality & quantity.
Fiance Committee :-
Prepares budget and estimates possible expenditure during
the tournament.


Transport Committee :-
Ensures proper transport facilities for the tournament for all
the concerned persons those directly or indirectly participating
in the event.
Food and Accommodation Committee:-
Prepares accommodation and food for athletes, VIPs and
officials.
Committee for Officials :-
Hires officials required to preside over the matches in the
tournament Engage qualified officials for tournament in
required nos.
Ground and Equipment Committee:-
Prepares the ground for the tournament few days prior or it.
To arrange scientific equipments and well marked grounds
(courts, halls, rings etc.) for tournament.
Programme Committee:-
To prepare the whole programme of reception, ceremony,
decoration, prize distribution of the tournament. Keeps the
records of the participating teams and prepares fixture.
First Aid Committee:-
To arrange qualified doctors, other helpers and maintain proper
first aid kits for all possible situations and conditions of the
tournament.
Programme Committee:-
Focus on the problems of the participating teams, athletes,
official & try to solve it officials or the concern injured persons.
First Aid Committee:-
Treating the injuries sustained by athletes and taking the

injured players to hospital if injury is serious.




Q.2 Write down the role of the various committees during a
tournament.

Ans. The following is the role of various committees during a
tournament.
Organizing Committee :-
Managing all committees and ensuring all committees are
doing their work properly.
Marketing Committee :-
Proper provision of all equipments will be required, during the
tournament.
Transport Committee :-
Ensuring proper transportation of athletes between
accommodation sites, stadium/playing sites, training centres
etc.
Food and Accommodation Committee :-
Providing food to all officials and athetes during the tournament
as their demand of work and also managing the proper
accommadation site.
Committee for officials :-
To satisfy Make proper arrangements of needs to satisfy of
the officials during a tournment.
Ground and Equipment Committee :-
Ensuring the proper condition of the grounds and all equipment
through out the tournament.
Programme Committee :-
Focus on the problems of the participating teams, athletes,
official & try to solve it
First Aid Committee :-
Treating the injuries sustained by athletes and taking the injured
players to hospital if injury is serious.
Decoration Ceremony Committee :-
Ensuring the decoration of all the ceremony– opening, closing,
prize distribution etc is proper during the tournament.

Announcement Committee :-
Announce important information like the particiapaints of the

next match, time, court and date from the stage.

Q.1 Enlist the name various committees during the
Tournament? Explain the Responsiblilties of any four
committes.
1.3 Tournament : A series of sports competitions, in which, a team
finally wins and rest of the participating teams lose the matches.
It depends on various factors i.e. - No. of participating teams,
availability of grounds and equipments, No. of days and funds.
Types of Tournament
A. Knock out : In this type of tournament, the team once defeated,
gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams contest
in the next rounds. Opportunities are given to the winning players/
teams.
B. League : In single league tournament all participating teams
compete, with each other, where-as in double league, each team
plays with every other team twice, without any consideration of victory
or defeat.

C. Combination Tournament: These are the Tournament is which
some rounds are played on the basis of knock out & some are
played on the Basis of league examples.
Knock out cum knock out
Knock out cum league
League cum league

League cum knock out


Q.1 What are the advantage & disadvantages of league or
round robin tournament.
OR

Write down the merits & demerits of the league
tournament.
Ans. Merits
1. Only real player/ team that has best potential will be the winner
of the tournament.
2. Charm of the tournament still maintained through out the
tournament.
3. Good team/ player will continues through out the tournament
so the chance of selection of good players is still alive.

Demerits
1. Funds are required more
2. Time is required more
3. Result comes late
4. Requirement of more no of officals and more no of grounds.

5. Equipments are needed more.


Q.4 Define tournament and explain its types?
1.4 Procedure to Draw Fixture for Knockout Tournament
Step 1. Divide the total no teams in to two half if total no teams are

more than 16 divided than also in quarter.

Step 2. Check if total no of team are in power of two

i.e.
(2,4,8,16,32,64. ......) or not.

Step 3. If total no of teams are not in power of two then byes will

be given.

Step 4. Calculate the byes & place them according to the formula.
Step 5. Arrange the match. It should be remembered that match
can be arranged between the teams in the same round.
Step 6. It should be remembered that if the total no teams are
more than 16 the byes of upper half will be placed
separately my lower half will be separately.

Step 7. In case of seeding or special seeding we calculate the
byes of the deducting total no seeding from the total no. of


teams.



Q.1 Explain the staircase method of league tournament and
draw the fixture of 12 teams in staircase methods.
Ans. Stair case method :- in stair case method the fixture are
made just like a ladder or a stair case in this method no bye is
given to any team and there is no problem of even or odd
number of teams.


Q.3. Explain the procedure (method) to Calculate byes.
Ans. When the total number of the teams in the tournament are not
in the power of 2 then bye is given.
The method of bye is
First find the next power of 2 after the number of teams.
Example :- Total team = 11
Next power of 2 = 16
Number of bye = 16-11=05 bye
1. First bye is given to lower half bottom team
2. Second bye is given to top most team of upper half
3. Third bye is given to upper most team of lower half
4. Fourth bye is given to bottom team of upper half

5. Other byes are determined using this order.



Q.1 Make the fixture for 13 teams on the basis of knock out.
Ans. Total no. of matches :-
Total no teams -1 13-1=12 matches
Total no of round = 2*2*2*2
Digit 2 repeats four time so no of round = 4 rounds
Total no bye :- next power of 2- total no. of team 16-13 =03
No of team is upper half= Total no of team+1
2

= 13+1
2 = 07 teams

No. of teams in lower half = Total no of team+1
2

= 13-1
2 = 06 teams

No. of bye is upper half = Total no Bye-1 3 1 2
2 2 2

   = 1 teams

No. of bye in lower half = Total no Bye+1 3 1 4
2 2 2


   = 2 teams


Q.2 Draw the fixture for 24 team on the basis knockout
tournament
Ans. Total no matches = Total no of team -1 = 24-1 = 23.
Total no. round = 2*2*2*2*2
i.e. Digit 2 report 5 times
So total no round = 5 round
Total team in upper half = Total no of teams =
24
2 = 12 teams

Total team in lower half = Total no of teams = 24

2 = 12 teams
As the total no of teams are more then 16 so we have to divide
teams also in quarter.
Runners-up

Winner

Teams in each quarter: 4 ] 24 [ 6 (Q=6)

24
R=0

Total No. bye = Next power of two Total no of team
= 32 – 24 = 08 Byes

Bye in Upper half =
8
2 = 4 Byes

Bye in lower half =
8

2 = 4 Byes


Q.3 Draw a fixture of knock out basic for 11 teams by giving
seedng to 2 teams.
Ans. Total no matches = Total no of team -1 = 11-1 = 10
Total no round = 2*2*2*2 = 4 Rounds

4
3

1
2

4
3

Repetition of digit 2 is 4 time so total no round = 4 rounds
Team in upper half = Total no of team+1
2

= 11+1
2 = 6 teams

Team in lower half = Total no of team-1
2

= 11-1
2 = 5 teams
Total No. of bye is upper half =    Total no Bye-1 5 1 4
2 2 2 = 2 Byes

Total No. of bye in lower half =

   Total no Bye+1 5 1 6

2 2 2 = 3 team


Q.1 Briefty explain the objectives of intramural tournaments.
Ans. Objectives
1. Physical development
2. Mental development
3. Social development
4. To develop good leadership quality
5. To provide recreation to the child
6. To control agression
7. To provide platform to show himself
8. To increase the sources of competitions
9. To develop the qualities of a good leader
10. To give the knowledge of the rules of various game
11. To find out the talented sport man
12. To develop good personality.



 Q.2 Write down the activities for the intramural tournament.
Ans. Major games :- hockey, football, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi etc.
Minor games :- Shuttle run, sag race, triple leg race,

Lemon race etc.

Rhythmic Games :- P.T. Lazium, dumbal, dance etc.
Creative games :- drawing, painting.
Combat games :- Judo, Wrestling, boxing etc.


Q.3 Write down the importance of the extramural tournament.
Ans. 1. Help in the physical development.
2. Help in the mental development.

3. Help in the social development.
4. Help in the personality development.
5. Reduce the level stress anxiety.
6. Develop in leadership qualities.
7. Understand the Rules and Regulations of various games.
8. Help to control the level of aggression in an individual.
9. Help for recreation of children.

10. Help to develop the sense of competitiveness.



Q.4 What do you means by intramurals? Mention the
significance of intramurals for school children.
Ans. The word intramural (Intra+murals) within+wall, It means that
the activities which are performed within the walls or within
the campus of an institution are called intramurals. These
activities are organized only for the students of a school or
institution. No students of other school can participate in these
activities intramural competition is one of the best means to
motivate.
All the students of an institution for taking part in the games
and sports “A games for each and each for a game “may be
considered the motto of intramurals. These activities are the
most pleasurable as well as enjoyable for the students they
get maximum educational benefits from such competition so
a large number of students must be involved in a wide range
of intramurals activities.
Significance of Intramural :-
* Intramurals are very significant for physical mental emotional
and social development of students.

* These programmes also lay stress on moral and ethical values
of students.
* Intramurals are necessary for the development of health of
children.
* These programmes are also important to calm down the
fighting instinct of children.
* These programmes refresh the children and make them agile.
* Intramurals provide maximum recreation to the students.
* Intramurals provide ample opportunities to the students to
participate in game and sports.
* Intramurals are also essential for development the leadership

qualities among the students.






Q.1 Explain the meaning of specific sport programs? Explain
any four. 1 + 4 = 5
Ans. Specific sports programs are those programs of sports which
are often not related to the competition these programs are
designed with multiple objectives with their focus on the
well being of an individual. The aims of programme is to
create awareness among the common people regarding
unity & integrity prevention & protection against various
diseases social +ve & –ve ideas, policies etc.
Specific sports programmes
Sports Day :-
Sports day is organized in the school once in the year so that
the all round development of children could be done various
physical and recreation activities are conducted on sports
day it is organized by almost each and every school on sports
day every child gets ample opportunities to take part in activity
of there choice. Due to these days most of students get
experience as organizer as well as administrator sports day
also provide opportunity to select talent for future.
Health Run :-
These programmers are organized by health and sports
department to raise the standards of health and to make
people aware about good health & to maintain good health.
People of any age can take part. There is no competition.
These provide significant health benefits. But precautionary
measures must be taken before participating i.e. proper sports
kit health status of individual.
Run for Fun :-
This is to create awareness among people to keep fit and

healthy. A run for fun is friendly event which is organised for
enjoyment & fitness of whole society.
Run for Unity :-
This is to inculcate peace and harmony among the people of
different religion of faith. Main purpose of run to develop
botherhood among the different societies group. Winners of
run are generally. Awarded by cash trophies certificate etc.
Generally runs are organised on 31st october on bith day of
Sardar Vallabh bhai patel.
Run for Specific Cause :-
For specific cause run is a run related to good and generous
cause. The purpose of this is to earn the funds for a specific
cause but the reason should, be good it is after organized by
the social organization in order to make the run attractive

player, artists and actors are asked to participate in it.



Q.1 What do you mean by planning or explain the meaning of
planning.
Ans. It is a predicate process which explain the organization of
work administration of work delegation work & supervision of
work in detail
Q.2 What do you understand the term bye or what is bye.
Ans. When the total no of teams are not in power of two (i.e.
2,4,8,16,32,64) then byes are given to some team. Those
teams get the bye they do not play in 1st round they directly
play in the 2nd round.
Q.3. What is seeding or what do you understan by seeding or
special seeding.
Ans. Seeding is a special advantage given to last year winner &
runner up team or to the good teams of the Tournament with
the help of seeding teams can be directly entered in to any
round except the final round seeding always given in form of
power of two i.e. (2,4,8,16,32).
Q.4. What are the knock out tournament or what do you understand
by knock out tournaments.
Ans. In these types of tournaments after loosing 1st match the
team gets eliminated from the tournament in the knock out
tournament a team will be continue in the tournament until it
does not loose any match.
Q.5 What are the league tournament or what are the round robin
tournament.
Ans. In these type of tournament all the teams of the tournament
will play with each other on the basis of result of all matches
the winner & runners up are decided they are of two type
a) Single league b) Dubble league.


Q.6 What are the combination tournament or what do you
understand by combination tournament.
Ans. In these types of tournament initial rounds are played on the
basis of specific types i.e. knock out or league and rest of
the rounds these tournaments are following types.
1. Knock out cum knock out
2. League cum league
3. Knock out cum league
4. League cum knock out
Q.7. What is the aim of intramural tournament.
Ans. Over all development of child is the aim of the intramural
tournnament.
Q.8 What is tournament.
Ans. Tournament is a series of matches organized to find out the
best team in a particular sports.
Q.9. Enlist various types of tournament.
Ans. There are four types of tournament.
1. Knock out tournament.
2. League tournament.
3. Combination tournament
4. Challenge tournament.
Q.10. Define intramurals
Ans. Intramurals :- Games played inside the school are called
intramural most of the students of the school participate in it
example :- House completion school athletic meet.
Q.11. Define Extramural
Ans. Games played outside the school in any other institution only
selected students from school participate in it.
Q.12. Define Fixture
Ans. The organized method in which team participate in a fixed

order and one team is declared winner at the end.





Q.1 Enlist the committees for organizing sports event and explain
any eight committees in detail ?
Ans. Various committees are formed for systematic and smooth
conduct of competition / tournament.
1. Committee for publicity.
2. Transport committee
3. Boarding and loading committee.
4. Decoration and ceremony committee
5. Grounds & equipment committee
6. Refreshments and entertainment committee
7. Reception committee
8. Committee on entries and programmers.
9. Committee for officials.
10. Announcement committee
11. First aid committee
12. Accreditation committee
1. Committee for publicity : The committee for publicity
announces the date, venues and sports even advance
information to the institution and printing etc. Its main
responsibility is to advertise the sports events.
2. Transports committee :- This committee is responsible for
providing the facilities regarding transportation of various team
to the venue of sports event or to the place of boarding and
loading as the case may be.
3. Boarding and loading committee :- Boarding and loading
committee is responsible for making necessary arrangement
for providing accommodation and serving meals to the sports
persons and officials.
4. Ground and equipment committee :- This committee is
responsible for making the grounds or laying out the track
and field this committee also makes necessary arrangements
of equipments related to the games / athletic meet.
5. Reception committee :- The members of this committee are
responsible to welcome the chief guests at the opening and
closing ceremonies it is also the duty of this committee to
welcome the other quests and spectators.
6. Committee for official :- This committee select various officials
such as referees judges recorders starters marshals track
umpires time keepers and lap scorers for athletic meet and
referee umpires time keepers recorders and judges etc.
7. Announcement committee :- This committee is solely
responsible for making various announcement during the sport
meet or games this committee announces regarding opening
and closing ceremonies.

8. First aid committee :- First aid committee is headed by a well
qualified doctor this committee provide first aid to the victim

or affected athlete/ sports person immediately.




Q.5 Make the fixture for 13 teams on the basis of knock out.
Ans. Total no. of matches :-
Total no teams -1 13-1=12 matches
Total no of round = 2*2*2*2
Digit 2 repeats four time so no of round = 4 rounds
Total no bye :- next power of 2- total no. of team 16-13 =03
No of team is upper half= Total no of team+1
2

= 13+1
2 = 07 team

No. of teams in lower half = Total no of team+1
2

= 13-1

2 = 06 team





Q.6 Draw the fixture for 24 team on the basis knockout tournament
Ans. Total no matches = Total no of team -1 = 24-1 = 23.
Total no. round = 2*2*2*2*2
i.e. Digit 2 report 5 times = 5 rounds
So total no round = 5 round
Total team in upper half = Total no of teams =
24
2 = 12 teams

Total team in lower half = Total no of teams = 24

2 = 12 teams
As the total no of teams are more then 16 so we have to divide teams
also in quarter.
Teams in each quarter : 4 ] 24 [ 6 (Q=6)

24
R=0

Total No bye= next power of two-total no of team

= 32-24 = 08 byes

Bye in upper half = 8/2 = 4

Bye in lower half = 8/2 = 4




Physical Education Class 12th

UNIT - 1 Planning in Sports


UNIT - 6 Test & Measurement in Sports

UNIT - 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

UNIT - 8 Biomechanics and Sports

UNIT - 9 Psychology and Sports


UNIT - 10 Training In Sports

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