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Physical Education class 12th ~ UNIT - 2 Sports and Nutrition

Balanced Diet :- A complete food, a diet contains adequate
amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for proper
growth & maintenance of body.
OR

Balanced diet is a diet that contains an adequate quantity of
the nutrients that we require in a day. balanced diet includes
fat, protein, carbohydrates, water, fiber, vitamis and minerals
present in the foods that we eat.

Functions of Balanced diet:-
(i) Sufficient energy is given by balanced diet.
(ii) It helps individual to grow and develop to optimum level.
(iii) Proper functioning of organs is done by balanced diet.
(iv) It helps to repair or replace the worn out tissue.
(v) Balanced diet improves the defence system of body.
(vi) It helps to improve the overall health status.
(vii) Balanced diet improves metabolism.
(viii) It prevents deficiency diseases and maintain body weight thus
overall efficiency of individual improves.

Nutrition :- It is the process of obtaining & consuming food
or breaking down food & substances taken in by the mouth to

use for energy in the body.

Nutrients :- The energic food in our diet consists of various
types of essential chemicals for our body termed as nutrients
:- e.g. Protein, fat, charbohydrates, vitamins & minerals.
Macro Nutrients :- Macro Nutrient are needed in
large quantities they normally include carbohydrates, fat,
protein and water.
Micro Nutrients: As vitamins and minerals which are required
in small quantities to ensure normal metabolism, growth and

physical well-being.


factors should be considered for making balanced
diet:-
Ans.
(i) Age :- Age plays great role in making diet for like in growing
age a child need more protein but old aged people should
avoid more proteins and fats but should take more minerals &
vitamins
(ii) Gender :- Sex difference causes variation in diet more caloric
requirement to male & less for female.
(iii) Profession :- Heavy physical activities work out needs more
calories demand & less physical activities work out less calories
demand.
(iv) Body weight :- Obese person need more fibrous food, while
slim or lean needs more protein.
(v) Specific Sports Diet :- Various sports need specific diet like
long distance runner need more fat and carbohydrates,
contact body games player need more protein, explosing
strength player needs more carbohydrates.
(vi) Pregnancy or feeding mother :- Pregnant mother needs
extra diet - carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamines, minerals
specially high protein diet is recomended for a pregnent
woman.
(vii) Diet During Health Problems :- Injured person should take
more protein and minerals. Patients should take diet full of
mineral & vitamins.
(viii) Climatic Condition :- The effects the diet like in cold places
food should be oily fried, while in coastal region the food
should be more liquid.
(ix) Doctor’s Recommendation :- Diseased or sick person
should take proper diet according to doctor recommendation
example patient avoid fried food in jaundice.
(x) Eating habbits & social Customes :- They also effect the
diet of individual. In some family on the day of festival selected

fried food is compulsory for whole family.


Importance of Balanced Diet :
(i) Energy Resource :- It gives sufficient energy to body for
various activities.
(ii) For optimum growth & Development :- It helps individual
to grow and to achieve all round development.
(iii) Proper function of Organs :- By help of balanced diet every
organ functions work well and properly.
(iv) Faster Recovery :- It helps to repair and replace the worn
out tissues thus faster recovery.
(v) Strong immune system :- It gives better resistance power
to body to make good immune system.
(vi) Improves fitness level :- It improves over all health states
and resulting in fitness of body by preventing diseases.
(vii) Improves Metabolism :- Quality of metabolizing and thus
efficient release of energy.
(viii) Prevents Deficiency Diseases :- It gives all necessry
nutrients to body so deficiency diseases cannot take place.
(ix) Maintaining body weight :- It helps individual to maintain
proper body weight.

(x) Overall efficiency improves :- It improves all physiological
systems of body and more of efficiency level of individual. In

this way balanced diet is useful for us.



*Water is very useful component of our diet because.
Blood plasma comprises 91% of water, water comprises 75%
of muscular weight & 70% of body weight. It is important for

secretion of waste produces. It regulate the body tempera-
ture. Our body loses approximately 2% of our body weight or

water per day. We compensate thus loss of water by drinking
water and by in take of food substances. It also functions as
a lubricant keeps the skin moist and protect the body from
shock. 20% of water in take comes from food and remaining
intake come from direct drinking water.




Is fat useful or not useful for us explain?
Ans. (i) Fats are store in body and used as emergency sources
of energy.
(ii) Fats are important sources of energy for long duration
activities and important for proper function of glands
and other internal organs.
(iii) It helps in transportation of fat soluble Vitamins A,D.E.K.
(iv) It help in blood clotting maintenance of skin & hair.
Our diet should consist of 20%–25% of fat higher in
take of fat high risk of obesity and many heart diseases.
(v) Fats maintain body temperature and protect it from
effect of external temperature.

(vi) Fats make body soft & oily.



*Difference between types of simple carbohydrate
and complex carbohydrate.
Ans. (i) Simple carbohydrate give quick energy on the other
hand complex carbohydrates release slow energy.
(ii) The types of simple carbohydrates are Glucose,
Glactose, Fructose, Maltose, Sucrosse, Lactose.
Complex are starch, Giycogen, Dexitine and Cellulose.
(iii) Simple carbohydrate are more sweeter in taste than
complex carbohydrates.
(iv) Simple Carbohydrate can be absorbed quickly on other
side complex carbohydrates take time.
(v) Simple carbohydrates can be disolves in water but
complex carbohydrate are insoluble in water.


*importance of protein for our body?
Ans. Proteins are basic structure of all living cells. Proteins are
main components of muscles, tendons, ligaments, organs,
glands, and all living body fluids like enzymes hormones and
blood.
Proteins are needed for growth & development of body. It
helps to repair or replace the worn out tissues. It does not
provide energy in normal routine whereas it acts as energy
source only under extreme starvation. Proteins are required
for making blood, muscle, Nails, skin, hair and body parts
and repair them and important in some situation like early
development maturation, Pregnancy etc.


*the types and effects of micro nutrients on our
body?
Ans. Minerals & Vitamins are the micro nutrients of diet.
Function of Micro nutrients.
(i) Calcium :- It is required for bone and teeth formation,
deficiently causes Osteoporosis, Rickets and retorted growth.
(ii) Iron :- It is required for formation of Haemoglobin, deficiency
of iron leads to Anemia.
(iii) Phosphorus :- It helps to making strong bones and teeth.
(iv) Sodium :- It helps nervous system for better response,
dificiency leads to cramps and tiredness.
(v) Iodine :- It helps in proper growth and development of body,
deficiency leads to goitre.
(vi) Fluoride :- It helps to formation of teeth and nails.

(vii) Chioride : - It helps body to fight against infection, proper
functions of nervous system.

Vitamins :
Vitamin A - Helps in normal growth and development of eyes and
skin.

Vitamin D - Important for formation of strong bones & teeth.
Vitamin E - It protects the cell membrane and acts as antioxidant.
Vitamin K - Helps in Blood clotting and heals wounds.
Vitamin B - For growth & development.
Vitamin B2 - Helps in growth of RBC.
Vitamin B3 - Play important role in energy transfer, reactions in

the metabolism of glucose, fat & alcohol.

Vitamin B5 - In involved in oxidation of fatty acids & Carbohydrates.
Vitamin B6 - It helps in metabolism of amino acids.
Vitamin B7 - It play key role in metabolism of lipids, proteins and
carbohydrates.

Vitamin B9 - Folic Acids Needed for normal cell division especially during pregnancy and infancy.

Vitamin B12 -It involved in cellular metabolism of carbohydrates
proteins and lipids and helps in production of RBC in

bone marrow.



*fat soluble vitamins and their sources and water

soluble vitamins and their sources:-

Fat Soluble Vitamin
Vitamin A Vitamin A is found in Cord liver Oils/animal Liver, york,
Milk, & Milk products, carrot.
Vitamin D Vitamin is found in milk, fish, and Liver oils
Vitamin E Vitamin E is found in Green leafy Vegetables, Pulses,
eggs, cereals.
Vitamin K In tomatoes, Potatoes, Spinach, cabbage, soyabean,
fish, cauliflower, wheat, eggs, meat.

Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B Vitamin B - Sources include peas, perk Liver, Legumes
B2 -- We can find in eggs, dark green vegetables, legumes,
whole and enriched grain produced milk.
B3 -- Fish, meat, peanuts and whole enriched grain produced
milk.
B5 -- Pork, meats whole grains, cereals legumes, green
leaftly vegetables.
B6 -- Cereals, grains, legumas, vegetables, milk, cheese,
eggs, fish liver, meat, flour.

B12 -- Fish, red meat, milk, cheese, eggs.



*Non-nutritive component of diet does not provide any calorie
or energy but have their own Importance.
(1) Fibre: It is undigested part of food. It cannot be digested
by human intestinal part. It increases apetite and smoothers
function of intestines. It removes constipation.
(2) Flavour Compounds: It addressces the tasts of food.
But does not coutributie any nutritire value. Like tea in
milk or coffee power in milk gives it colour and taste.
(3) Colour Compound: It makes attractive to see by the
wide reflection of colours made possible through pigments.
Natural Pigment are found in fruits and vegetables like
red, orange, yellow, green etc.
(4) Plant Compounds: There are some plants which contain
non nutritive element. Ingestion can beneficial or harmful.

There are many compounds that Inhibit cancer.




Macro Nutrients:-
1. Carbohydrates : They are main source of energy for all
activities. They give quick energy and less amount of
carbohydrate in diet causes under nutrition and weight loss.
Excess amount has been stored in livers and tissues from
there they release the energy when in need.
2. Proteins: Proteins are needed for growth and development
of body. It helps and replace the worn out tissues. It does not
provide energy under normal routine but give energy under
extreme starvation, High intake of proteins creates overload
over kidney and livers. Deficiency diseases are kwashioskar
or marasmus.
3. Fats: Fats are emergency sources of energy and stored in
body. Fats carry Vitamine, A,D,E,K. They are sources of
energy for large activities. In proper functionary of glands
and internal organs against the blood clotting, maintains the
skin and important functions of glands. Internal organs helps
on blood clotting. Our diet should consist of 20%-25% of fat
more intake more risk of obesity and many heart diseases.
So that nutrients and highly proporation of diet should be
taken in proper amount according to need.
4. Water: It is essential nutrient our body consists of 70% of
water. Water consist 90% of blood. Each person shall drink
8-10 glass of water daily. The essential are sent through water
to all cell of body. It is significant in excertion of wast products.

It help in digestion. it also regulates the body temperature.



*Eating for weight control-A healthy weight. The pitfalls
of dieting, food intolerance and food myths.
(A) Eating for weight Control
A healthy weight is a weight that lowers your risk for health
problems, generally body mass index (BMI) and waist size
are good ways to achieve healthy weight. Methods to calculate
BMI = Weight in Kg/ (Height in m)2.

Eating for weight control :- Factors to control body weight
* Balanced diet
* Drink lots of water
* Eating lot of fibrous food
* Regular Medical Checkup
* Avoid Fats
* Medicine only by doctors advice
* Physical Activity
* Avoid Drinking
* Avoid Junk food
* Meals in small intervals
* Follow Hygenic Habits
* Do not do Dieting
* Never Try sliming pills
* Avoid over does of carbolydrate.
* Balancing the intakes of calories and expenditure of calories.

B. Pitfalls of Dieting
* Disturbed digestive system
* Acidity problem
* Gastric problem
* Muscular weakens
* Quick Tiredness
* Loose the shining of face
* Disturbed the metabolic rate
* Muscles cramp
* Chances of heart problems
* Pain in stomach
* Palpitation
* Burning sensation in urine
* After dieting, when A person comes on his normal diet. Body
weight overshoots the initial body weight from where he started
the dieting.

C. Food Intolerance
Food intolerance is that when a person has difficulty in
digesting a particular food.
Symtoms : Nausea, Vomiting, Pain in joints, headache and
reshes on skin, Diarrhoea, sweating, palpitations,
To reduce body weight when a person skip diet and colories
food. It is called dieting.
Food myths: Some various myths regading food.
1. Don’t take heavy Breakfast
2. Patoto Increase obesity
3. Does eating sweets cause diabetes
4. Do not drink water during meals
5. Sweets are not good for health
6. Don’t take milk just after eating fish
7. Do not take ingreasy meals
8. Dieting reduce weight
9. Non-Veg. food is compusory for protein




*Pilfalls of dietiating are following -
(a) Disturbed Digestive System
(b) Acidity Problems
(c) Gastric Problems
(d) Muscular Weakness
(e) Quick Tiredness
(f) Loose the Straining of Face
(g) Disturbed Metabolic Rate
(h) Peptic ulcer
(i) Chance of heart problem
(j) Pain in Stomach
(k) Palpitations
(l) After dieting when person comes, normal diet his body
weight overshoot to his initial body weight from where
he started the dieting.


Symptoms of Food Intolerance :
Food intolerance can cause nausea, stomach pain, Diarrhoea,
Vomitting, Flatulence Gas, Cramps, heart burn, headache,

irritability, nervousness etc.



Q.1 Mention the types of carbohydrate?
Ans. Two types simple & complex.
Q.2. List down simple types of carbohydrates?
Ans. Glucose, Galactose, Fructose, Maltose, Sucrose lactose.
Q.3 Stae complex carbohydrates types ?
Ans. Starch, Glycogen, Dextine, Cellulose are the types of complex
carbohydrates.
Q.4 How many amino acids are found in proteins?
Ans. 23 amino acids and 9 are essential for us.
Q.5 State two Non Nutritive components of Diet?
Ans. Water & Fibers of Roughage coloured, flavoured.
Q.6 Which type of witamin B are found in diet?
Ans Vit. B1, B2
, B3
, B5, B6, B12, = 6 Vit. B.

Q.7 Mention two diseases which come from deficiency of protein?
Ans. Kwashiyorkan & Marasmars.
Q.8. Name the macro minerals which should be part of our diet?
Ans. Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Phasphorus, lodine, Potassium.
Q.9 List down four myths about dieting?
Ans. (i) Healthy food is expensive.
(ii) Dieting makes you loose weight.
(iii) No fat diet is good.

(iv) Don’t take milk immediately after eating fish.





*importance of protein for our body?
Ans. Proteins are basic structure of all living cells. Proteins are
main components of muscles, tendons ligaments, organs
glands, glands and all living body fluids like enzymes hormones
and blood.
Proteins are needed for growth & development of body. If
helps to repair or replace the worn out tissues. It does not
provide energy in normal routine whereas it acts as energy

source only under extreme starvation. Proteins are required
for making blood, muscle, Nails, skin, hair and body parts
and repair them when needed and are important in some
situation like early development and maturation, pregancy
lactation, or injury like burn etc.



Q. How food intolerance is treated? What are systems Explain
in brief?
Ans. Food intolerance is treated by medical help where we know
the food which causes problem. Food intolerance is more
common than food allergy. Food intolerance is a term used
widely for varied physiological response associated with a
particular food. The individual elements of certain foods that
cannot be properly purposed and absorbed by our digestive
system.

Systems of Food Intolerance :
Food intolerance can cause nausea, stomach pain, Diarrhoea,
Vomitting, Flatulence Gas, Cramps heart burn, headache,

irritability, or nervousness etc.




Q. What do you mean by bulimia Nervosa? Mention causes?
Ans. It is eating discorder characterized by binge eating and
consuming a large amount of food in short time and after
taking food persons try to get rid of one of consumed food,
by vomiting taking a laxative or excessive exercise to reduce
weight.
Two causes to Bulimai Nervosa.
(1). Purging Type - Individual which has this type of vomit (self
induced), a use of laxatives or diuretics (water pills) to avoid
gaining weight from binge.
(2). Non purging type - Individual engages self in regular fasting
or excessive exercise.
(i) Abnormal levels of Hormones

(ii) Dietary.



Q.Is fat useful or not useful for us and for body, explain?
Ans. (i) Fats are store in body and are used as emergency
sources of energy.
(ii) Fats are important sources of energy for long duration
activities and important for proper function of glands
and other internal organs.
(iii) It helps in transpotation of fat soluble Vitamins A,D.E.K.
(iv) it help in blood clotting maintenance of skin & hair.
Our diet should consist of 5 to 10% of fat higher in
take of fat high risk of obesity and many heart diseases.
(v) Fats maintain body temperature and protect it from
effect of external temperature.

(vi) They make body soft & oily.



Q. State four Myths of Dieling ?
Ans. Myth : Low fat or no fat diet are good for you.
Fact : This is not true cutting down saturated fat and eating
unsaturated fat is good body needs fat for energy, tissue
repair and transport Vitamins A,D,E,K.
(ii) Myth : Fasting Mkes you loose weight.
Fact : True for short period by hinder weight loss. In long
term it leans muscular tissues so exercise is recommended
for weight loss.

(iii) Don’t drink water while taking food. It digest food it don’t
hamper metabolism so it is not true.
(iv) Myth milk should not be taken immediately after fish.
Fact : it is not true it will not give any allergy or irritation
scienctist don’t think so.
(v) Fruits and vegetables are more nutritive than cooked foods.
Fact : Scientist discovered in recent years that cooking actually
boost levels of important compound in some fruits and
vegetable and cooking also breaks down fiber, making it easier
for your body to process.
(vi) Myth - Eat less nuts they are too fattening
Fact : It is true that nuts contain a lot of fat but it is mostly the
food kind. Recent research suggested that eating nuts as

part of a healthy diet may even help you loose weight.




Physical Education Class 12th

UNIT - 1 Planning in Sports


UNIT - 6 Test & Measurement in Sports

UNIT - 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

UNIT - 8 Biomechanics and Sports

UNIT - 9 Psychology and Sports


UNIT - 10 Training In Sports























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