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Physical Education class 12th ~ UNIT - 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN (Children with Special Needs–Divyang)

Concept of Disability: Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical etc. It affects the everyday activities of the individual to a considerable amount. It may be present in an individual from birth or occur during one’s lifetime. Disability has different meanings in different societies of the world. Disability is an injury that restricts the functions or movements of an individual. It is the consequence of an impairment caused to an individual. Disability is a medical condition which does not permit an individual to perform any activity or movement in a normal way.
Disability :- Any disadvantage due to which an individual is not able to perform the activities of normal human life is known as disability.
Concept of Disorder: Disorder is usually used for mental disabilities. Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of an individual. Disorder creates hindrance in an individual’s performance and reduces his efficiency. In the beginning disorder seems to be ordinary but they usually grow or spread in a harmful manner in an individual. Most probably, a disorder can not be detected on time, as a result of which, a simple disorder is changed into a disability. A disorder disrupts the normal functioning of an individual.
Disorder : Any disruption due to which an individual is not able to perform his daily human activities is known as disorder.

a.Differentiate betweren Disability and Disorder
Disability Disorder
(1) It is a physical, 1. It is an illness or dysfuctional
mental, cognitive, factor that affecr or disrupt
condition that impairs, the person physical or
interferes with or limit mentally a person’s ability to engage in certain action of participate in daily activites and
interaction
(2) There is no chances 2. High chances to become
to become normal normal
(3) Disability is concerned 3. Disorder is concerned with
with various parts of mental ability
the body
(d) Disability is 3 tyres a 4. Disorder is 5 types ADHD,
physical, cognitive & SPD, ASD, OCD & ODD intellectual disability



Types of disability
Cognitive Disability: It is a neurological disorder that creates hindrances or obstruction for an individual to store, process and produce information.  This ability can affect an individual’s ability or capability to read, compute, speak and write.
The individual’s, who have this type of disability, usually have following symptoms:
i) Memory disorder:  An individual who has auditory problems or difficulty in remembering something that he heard, said or saw before sometime.
ii) Hyperactivity: An individual with cognitive disability may not have attention for a long period. He finds it difficult to stay at one place.
iii) Dyslexia: An individual with cognitive disability may exhibit dyslexia. It means he may have difficulty in writing, reading, speaking, etc.
Intellectual disability: It is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. Indeed, this disability is related to the individual’s thought process, communication, money, learning, problem solving and judgment.
Physical disability: it is a limitation on individual’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other impairments such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and steep disorders, which limit other facets of daily living are also included in physical disabilities. Physical disability may either be motor deficiency or sensory impairment.

Causes of disability

a) Genetic cause: Abnormalities in genes and genetic inheritance cause intellectual disability in children. Sometimes, diseases, illness and over exposure to x-rays may cause genetic disorder.
b) Mental health problems: problems such as depression, bipolar disorder etc. may lead to disability. They tend to be some of the most misunderstood disabilities.
c) Accidents: Accidents may occur anywhere, anytime and to anyone. These accidents may happen at workplace, on the roads or in the air. These accidents may lead to disability.

Types of disorders

a) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
b) Sensory processing disorder (SPD)
c) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
d) Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
e) Obsessive compulsive disorder (OSD)

Nature of Disorder:
1. Impairment in social Interacation and developmental
language and communication skills,
2. Disorder usually concerned with Nervous system,
3. Beharioural Problems,
4. Limits to perform activitiesm
5. Not Permanent,
6. Mostly gain by birth.



Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): it is a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. It is medical conditions that affects how well can someone sit still, focus and pay attention. The individual with ADHD have some problems focusing in some activities. This type of disorder is found more common in boys than in girls.
The various causes of ADHD are as follows:
a) Genetic factors: It is not a disorder that passed socially. Studies shows that parents, siblings, and children of people with ADHD may be up to five times more likely to have the disorder than the people who are not related to someone with ADHD.
b) Brain injuries: When a baby’s brain is damaged before or after birth this could make the baby more likely to develop ADHD later on.
c) Low birth weight: It is observed that children with low birth weight are more likely to develop ADHD.
d) Trauma and brain diseases: Trauma during birth and brain diseases may lead to develop ADHD.
e) Diet: There are a number of evidences which shows that taking a particular type of food or food additives play a significant role in causing ADHD.
Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has difficulty in receiving and responding to the information that comes in through senses. It refers to the way the nervous system receives messages from the senses and then turns them into proper motor and behavioral responses. Sensory Processing Disorder may affect one sense such as touch, sight, taste or movement. It may also affect multiple senses. In fact, the person may scream when touched or may vomit or dive under the table after hearing the sound of a leaf blower outside the window.

The various causes of SPD are as follows:

a) Genetic Factor: Studies indicate that children born to adults who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may be at a higher risk to develop SPD. Scientists allude that the cause of SPD are coded into child’s genetic material.
b) Low birth weight: It is also considered one of the causes of sensory processing disorder.
c) Environmental factors: Usually, children who are adopted often experiences sensory processing disorder due to some restrictions in their early lives or poor parental care.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder that affects development. Here, the word spectrum refers to the range of symptoms and their severity. Generally, the young children with ASD have difficulties with communication, language, social skill and behavior. In other words, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by social interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behavior.
The various causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder are as follows:
a) Genetic factors: It seems to play a very significant role. The first thing is that something happens at the time of fetal development that alters genes and secondly child inherits problematic genes from one or both the parents.
b) Environmental factors: It is not certain that environment causes ASD. But mothers exposed to high level of pesticides and air pollution may also be at a higher risk of having a child with ASD.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a set or group of behavioral disorders called disruptive behavior disorders. It is called by this name because children with such disorders always tend to disrupt those around them.
Physicians define this disorder as a pattern of disobedient, hostile and defiant behavior directed toward authority figures. The individuals affected by this disorder usually rebel, argue with adults, refuse to obey and are obstinate.
The various causes of Oppositional Defiant Disorder are as follows:
a) Biological or Genetic factors: Children are more susceptible of developing ODD if they have a parent with a history of ADHD or ODD.
b) Physical factors: the presence of ODD traits has been linked to the existence of abnormal amounts of some brain chemicals. These brain chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, keep the brain chemicals themselves balance properly.
c) Psychological factors: Children may develop ODD if they don’t have good relation with parents or have neglectful parents or have inability to develop social relationship.
d) Social factors: Oppositional Defiant Disorder may be due to inconsistent discipline, divorce, poverty, chaotic environment I the family and exposure to violence.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a mental health disorder that affects people of all ages and walks of life. It occurs when an individual gets caught in a cycle of obsessions and compulsions. It can be said that persons with OCD are plagued to constant thoughts of fears that cause them to perform rituals or routines.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that causes repeated u unwanted thoughts. To get rid of unwanted thoughts, he/she performs the same  task/activity again and again.
Causes of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The exact cause of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is still unknown. Research studies suggest that there may be a problem with the way one part of the brain sends information to another part. Serotonin is the chemical in the brain that sends messages from one part to another. Insufficiency of serotonin may help in causing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

Advantages of physical activities for children with Special needs

a) Reduced level of anxiety, stress and depression: physical activities may help in reducing the level of anxiety, stress and depression of children with disabilities.
b) Improved social interaction: physical activities provide ample opportunities for improving the social interaction among children with special needs. Social relations are developed during involvement in physical activities.
c) Better emotional and psychological health: physical activities are beneficial for children with special needs because such activities improve psychological and emotional health.
d) Cognitive benefits: physical activities lead to cognitive skill improvement in children with disabilities. These activities allow them to discover and access strengths that cannot be challenged in the classroom setting.

Strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs

a) Medical check-up: if we want to make physical activities accessible for the children with special needs, we need to understand the type of disabilities of children and for this purpose complete medical check-up of the children is required. Because without complete medical check-up, the teachers of physical education cannot come to know about the type of disability child is facing.
b) Activities based on interests: Physical activities must be based on interest, aptitudes, abilities, previous experience and limitations of children with special needs. The teachers of physical education should have deep knowledge of limitations, interest and aptitudes of children.
c) Different instructional strategies: A variety of different instructional strategies such as verbal, visual and peer teaching should be used for performing various types of physical activities.  By this children get opportunity to learn by their own and become independent.
d) Modification of rules: Rules can be modified according to the needs of the children. They can be provided extra time or attempt to perform a physical activity.
e) Specific environment: For special needs children the area should be limited. In case of children who have autism, they must be provided specific area because they may need some time to relax.


Disabilities are mainly three types
(a) Physical (b) Cognitive (c) Intellectual
(a) Physical Disabiltiy: A physical disability is a limitation
on an individual’s physical functioning, mobillity,
dexterity or stamina. Other impairments such as
respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep
disorders, which limit other factes of daily.
(b) Cognitive Disability: it is a neurological disorder
that creates hindrance or obstruction for an individual
to store, process and produce information. This
ability can affect an individual’s ability or capability
or read, compute, speak and write.
(c) Intellectual Disability: Intellectual disability in a
disability characterised by significant limitations both
in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning,
problem solving) and in adaptive behaviour, which
covers a range of everyday social and practical skills.
Indeed, this disability is related to the individual’s
though processes, communication, money, learning,
problem solving and judgement.



Causes of Disability
There are various casues of disability that are stated below.
1. Genetic Causes. Some disabilities are known to be
inherited such as spinal muscular atrophy and muscular
dystrophy. Abnormalities in genes and genetic
inheritance cause intellectual disability in children.
Sometimes diseases, illnesses and over exposure to
X-rays may cause genetic disorder.
2. Poverty. Poverty is one of the major causes of disability.
Generally, it is seen that poor persons are the most
vulnerable to disability because they live and work in
unsafe environment with poor sanitation. They don’t have
good living conditions. They usually have little access
to education, safe drinking water and proper nutrition.
3. Mental Health Problems: Mental health problems such
as depression, bipolar disorder, etc., may lead to
disability. As a matter of fact, the causes of mental health problems are very difficult to diagnose. They tend to be
some of the most misunderstood disabilities.
4. Accidents: Nowdays, life is so fast that accidents may
occur anywhere, anytime and to anyone. These
accidents may happen at workplace, on the roads or in
the air. These accidents may lead to disability.
5. Infectious Diseases: Infectious diseases may also
cause disabilities. If the immunity power of a child is
low, he is susceptible to fall sick or contact more serious
illnesses. If a child is not immunised well, he becomes
vulnerable to infectious diseases like mumps, which
can cause hearing impairment or polio, which can
cripple the child.
6. Disturbance in Endocrine Glands: Disturbance in
endocrine glands may also lead to disability. Owing
to such disturbance, a child may suffer from various
physical and mental deficiency.
7. Malnutrition: Malnutrition is another significant cause
of disability, especially our country. If a child does not
get appropriate nutrition, he may be physically weak
Even deficiency of calcium leads to malformation of
bones. Deficiency of iodine may diminish the growth
of body. Similarly, deficiency of vitamin ‘A’ may cause
blindness, in children. Deficiency of vitamin B12 may
lead to loss of memory and cause paralysis.
8. Poor Approach to Health Care. Many disabilities
can be prevented easily, if it is proper access or
approach to health care facilities. Sometimes, good
health care facilities are not available during difficult labour and birth. It may cause a baby. To be born with
a disability such as cerebral palsy. Professionally
trained persons could handle such emergencies. They
can prevent babies from being born with such
disabilities. Proper immunisation can also help in
preventing many disabilities. Usually people who live
in remote areas, do not have proper access to health
can facilities, and thus, sometimes babies suffer
disabilities.
9. Nuclear Accidents. Many persons have suffered
after being exposed to radiation. It nuclear radiations
has also been increase in the number of children
born with cognitive disabilities such as Down
Syndrome.
10. Toxic Materials Pesticides Insecticides: Toxic
materials like lead and mercury, etc. found in various
products, use of insecticides and pesticides, other
harmful chemicals may cause disabilities in people
and birth defects in babies. As a matter of fact such
toxic materials may cause damage to brain which
ultimately leads to disabilities.
11. Illnesses: The illnesses like cancer, heart attack,
diabetes, etc., cause a number of long-term
disabilities. Arthritis, back pain, musculoskeletal
disorders, etc., are also significant causes of disability.
Some illnesses to pregnant woman may cause
physical or learning problems to her baby when born.
12. Lack of Education: Lack of education may lead to
disability. Generally, labourers are not educated. They
fall prey to certain diseases which can be avoided by using scientific methods or by taking precautions.
But due to ignorance they do not adopt such
precautionary methods. Hence, their chances to get
a disability are rised.
13. Wars. It is usually seen in wars that the most of the
civilians are killed or disabled along with the soldiers.
Bomb explosions cause people to become deaf,
dumb and lose their limbs. Not only the physical health
but mental health of the individuals is also badly
affected by nuclear, biological and atomic weapons.
14. Medicines and Vaccines. No doubt medicines and
vaccines are essential to protect health and prevent
disability but there are a number of practitioners in
the medical field who are not qualified or registered.
They don’t take proper care while dealing with
patients. The use of unclean syringes may cause
serious diseases like hepatitis or HIV/AIDS.
Improperly stored as well as wrong vaccines may
cause allergic reactions, poisoning and deafness to
child.
15. Dangerous Working Emviromment. If individuals
work in factories, mines or in agricultural fields under
improper working environment, they may be exposed
to dangerous machinery, tools or chemicals and wide
variety of health hazards. In such conditions they may
get disabilities on the long-run.

Q. What is the nature of Autism Spectrum Disorder
(ASD)?

Ans. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuro-
behavioural condition that includes impairment is social
interaction and developmental language and
communication skills combined with rigid, repetative
behaviours. Children are autism may have repetative,
stereotyped body movemtns such as rocking, pacing or
hand flapping. They may have unusual responses to
people, attachments to objects, resistance to change in
their routines, or aggrerssive or self-injurious behaviror.
At times the may seem not to notice people, objects, or
activities in their surroundings.

Q.What is the nature of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
(ODD)?
Ans. Children and teens with Oppositional Defiant Disorder
(ODD) have behavioural problems, such as attention deficit
disorder, learning disabilities, mood disorder (such as
depression), and anxiety dirorders. Some children with
ODD go on to develop a more serious behavior disorder
called conduct disroder. These children exhibit the habit
of excessively arguing with adults, especially those with
authority. They may actively refuse to complete with
requests and rules and deliberately trying to annoy or upset
others, or being easity annoyed by others. Blaming other
for your mistakes and frequent outbursts of anger and
resettlement are common among them.

Q.What is the nature of Obsessive-compulsive disorder
(OCD)?
Ans. Obsessive-compulsive disroder (OCD) is a potential
disabling illness that traps people in endless cycles of
repetitive thoughts and behaviros. People with OCD are
plagued by recurring and distressing throughs, fears, or
image (obsessions) they cannot control. Such people used
to have fear to dirt or contamination by germs or fear of
causing harm to another or making mistakes. Fear of being
embarrassed or behaving in socially unacceptable manner
or fear of thinking evil or sinful thoughts are become part
and parcel of their life. Similarly, need for order, symmetry
or exactness excessive doubt and the need for constant
reassurance hunts them always.

Q.Explain the disability etiquettes in details? 1 × 5
Ans. (1) Term used: We should not used the term as
handicaped, mentally challenged, physically challenged
& disabled person for any disable human being rather
should called as “person with disability” or “DIVYANG”.
(2) Companion: Never talk to person with disability through
a companion.
(3) Shake hand: When deals with person with disability
always offer him to shake hand first.
(4) Assistance: If assistance is offered to the person
with disability then wait until the offer is accepted.
(5) Adult: Always treat Adult as an adult.
(6) Address: Address the people who have disability by
their first name only as address to other.
(7) Identify: Your self and other person who are with you
when interact to any person with disability or Divyang.
(8) Patronize: Never patronize the person on the wheel
chair by tapping him on the shoulder or back.
(9) Lean: Never lean on the wheel char.

Q.Explain the advantages of physical activities for children
with special needs.
Ans. (1) Physical improvement: Improvement in concentration.
* Improvement in flexibility
* Improvement in strength
* Improvement in endurance
* Improvement in cardiovascular efficiency
* Decrease the Risk of obesity
* Better over all fitness.
* Improvement in Motor ability
* Minimize joint swelling.
(2) Mental improvement
* Improvement in mood
* Improvement in wellness
* Improvement the working of nervous system.
* Brain release endophins that help to feel good and
ease from depression anxiety.
(3) Improved the sense of self esteem
* feeling of greater self efficiency
(4) Sociological Gains
* New experiences
* New friendship
* feel of independance
* countering of stigmatization
(5) Good health
* Low risk of disease
(6) Enhance Productivity
* Improve the working efficiency

Q.Explain the strategies to make physical activities accessible
for children with special needs?
Ans.
1. Medical Check-up: First of all, it is essential to have a
medical check-up of all the children with special needs
or with various disabilities. Because without medical
check-up, the teachers of physical education cannot
come to know about the type of disability the child is
facing. Indeed, if we really want to make physical activities
accessible for the children with special needs, we need
to understand the type of disabilities of the children.
2. Physical Activities Must Be Based on Interests of
Children: Indeed, physical activities must be based on
the interests, aptitudes, abilities, previous experience and
limitations of children with special needs. So, the teachers
of physical education should have a deep knowledge of
limitations, interests and aptitudes of children. After that
physical activities can be made accessible for children
with special needs more easily.
3. Equipment Related to Physical Activities Should Be
According to the Needs of children: The equipments/
objects related to physical activities should be according
to the needs of children. These equipment should vary in
size, shape, colour and weight. These equipment should
be according to the capability and level of children. A
child with visual impairment should use bright coloured
ball. A yarn should be tied to the ball to bring the ball back
to children. So, various types of equipment must be
provided for children with special needs.
4. Specific Environment Should Be Provided: The area of
physical activities should be limited as movement
capabilities of children with special needs are limited.
Specially, in case of children who have autism, they must
be provided specific playing area because they may need
some time to relax. Light and sound are also vital for
making good environment for such children.
5. A Variety of Different Instructional Strategies Should
Be Used: For performing various types of physical
activities, a variety of different instructional strategies such
as verbal, visual and peer teaching should be used. It
can give children the opportunity to start learning on their
own and become more independent. Pictorial books are
also vital in terms of instructions regarding physical
activities.
6. Rules Should Be Modified According to the Needs of
Children with Disabilities: In the beginning, rules of the
physical activities should be simple but later on these rules
can be modified according to the needs of the children.
They can be provided extra attempt or time to perform a
physical activity. They can also be given additional resting
time before doing the next physical activity.
7. Children’s Previous Experience Must Be Taken into
Consideration: For making physical activities more
accessible for children with special needs, the concerned
teacher of physical education should have comprehensive
understanding and knowledge of children’s previous
experience about physical activities.
In conclusion it can be said that the above mentioned
strategies are very significant to make physical activities
accessible for children with special needs.



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