Motor development refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below infancy or infancy hood, early childhood & later childhood
It is of two types:
1. Gross motor development involves the development of large muscles in the child‘s body such as sitting, walking, running etc.
2. Fine motor development involves development of small muscles of the body, especially during the small movements of the fingers and hands eg. Holding of javelin, discus and pole, catching a cricket ball etc.
5.1 Motor Development-Motor Development refers to the development of a child’s Bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment.
Factors affecting motor development
1. Nutrition: – Nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory motor development is dependent upon nutrition that the child gets to a great extent. Children get stronger and development is good if they get nutritious food.
2. Immunization: – If mother and child both are immunized at a proper time it leads to good sensory motor development.
3. Environment: – Encouragement, love and security help the child to take risk to explore fearlessly and to know more about environment which leads to a better sensory development.
5.2 Factors affecting Motor Development
l. Heredity 2. Nutrition 3. Sleep 4. Immunization 5. Environment 6. Stimulation and Interaction 7. Opportunities 8. Training and Practice 9. Recreation 10. Education-Learning and Productivity 11. Gender 12. Posture Deformities 13. Sensory Impairment 14. Obesity 15. Social Skills 16. Mental Health
5.3 Physical and Physiological benefits of Exercise on Children
Physical benefit of exercise
l. Physical Health and Strength 2. Mental Health 3. Emotional Well being 4. Social Health 5. Positive School Environment 6. Motivating personality 7. Controls anti-social behavior
Physiological benefits of Exercise
1. Strengthening the heart 2. Strengthens bones and muscles 3. Controls Blood Sugar 4. Regulate Blood Pressure 5. Increases Energy level 6. Detoxification 7. Reduce Cholesterol level
Advantages and disadvantages of weight training
Advantages of weight training
a) Increase bone density: weight training helps in increasing bone density. The risk for osteoporosis is lower for the individuals who do weight training exercises at least 3 times a week.
b) Helps in getting good shape: Weight training is magical as it shape up all by involving appropriate schedule. Fat peoples can become slim and slim can gain weight and become strong.
Disadvantages of weight training are:
a) Risk on injuries: there is always a risk of injuries while performing weight training without any companion. In case you are alone and you are not able to do the required repetitions of exercise, you may be injured.
b) Less flexibility; weight training reduces flexibility, if flexibility exercises are not done along with weight training. If flexibility exercises are done continuously then such disadvantage can be ignored.
5.4 Advantages and Dis-advantages of Weight training and food supplement for children
Weight training:-Those exercise, that are designed to strengthen specific muscles. By causing them to overcome a fixed resistance, usually in the form of Bar bells or dumbbells.
Advantages of Weight Training
1. Improves Posture and range of motion 2. Increases muscles strength, bone density and endurance 3. Protection against injury 4. improve motor performance 5. Promote healthy Blood pressure and Cholesterol levels 6. Maintain Healthy Weight 7. Develop confidence and self esteem 8. Improve immune system functions 9. improve Psycho-socio well being 10. Promote and develops exercise habits
Disadvantages of Weight Training
1. Maturity 2. Introduce Injury 3. Safety 4. Loss of Flexibility
Concept of posture
The posture in which the body is so balanced as to produce least fatigue It means balancing the body in accurate and proper manner while sitting, standing etc or during any other actions.
a) One‘s personality can be judged,
b) Better balance, agility and overall physical performance.
c) helps in maintaining proper manner of standing, sitting walking of one‘s body.
d) it is a measure of one‘s alertness.
e) has better alignment, which translates into less injury.
f) recovers quicker from exercise or physical exertion, and feels more energetic
Causes of poor posture
(i) Injury when bone, ligament or muscle is injured, it weakens the support to that
(ii)Disease causes the joints to lose their strength and mobility.
(iii) Heredity Deformities like Kyphosis and flat foot are sometimes due to hereditary factors.
(iv) Overload Over work or fatigue also results in poor posture.
(v) Lack of Exercise The maintenance of erect posture requires strength and endurance.
Common postural deformities
Postural deformities are the exaggerated curvature of the spine. The spine is naturally curved but various factors may give rise to the deformities. It reduce the efficiency of individual to great extent & cause more health problem.
Knock Knee – a postural deformity in which both the knees touch or overlap each other in normal standing position
Causes of knock knee
(ì) Weakness of muscles and ligaments
(iii) Lack of balanced diet
(iv) Lack of vitamin-D
Flat Foot is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity, there is no arc in the foot and the foot is completely flat.
Round Shoulder It is a postural deformity in which the shoulders are drawn, the head is extended with the chin pointing forward.
Causes of round shoulders
(i) Due to poor posture while working
(ii) Faulty furniture
(iii) Wrong habit of sitting/standing
(iv) Carrying heavy load on shoulders
(V) By sleeping on one side
Kyphosis is a deformity of the spine in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backward curve.
Corrective measures of kyphosis
(i) Perform Dhanurasana regularly
(ii) Bend your head backward in standing position.
(iii) Reverse sit-up
(iv) Perform Bhujang Asana
(v) Perform ushtt Asana
Bow Legs is a deformity opposite knock knee. In fact, if there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily.
Lordosis is a common defect in deformity & posture. Here lumber curve becomes more pronounced and front central position of pelvic region is tilted forward.
Corrective measures of Lordosis
(i) Forward bending (ii) Alternate toe touching (iii) Sloop walking (iv) Perform paschimotan Asana (v) Perform sit-ups regularly
Causes of scoliosis
(i) Congenital scoliosis, which is caused by a bone abnormality present at birth. Neuromuscular scoliosis, which results clue Lo abnormal muscles or nerves.
(ii) This is seen in people with cerebral palsy or having partial paralysis.
(iii) Degenerative scoliosis, which may result from traumatic (. i. e. Injury Í illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis.
(iv) Idiopathic scoliosis, which is the most common type. It has no specific identifiable cause.
Preventive measures to avoid Scoliosis
Corrective measures of scoliosis (i) Perform Ardh Chakra Asana (ii) Chin-ups (iii) Swim by using breast stroke technique (iv) Perform Trikon Asana
(v) Perform Tarra Asana
Q. Elucidate the meaning of motor development.
Ans. Motor development refers to the development of a child’s
bones, muslces and ability to move around and manipulate
his/her environment. In simple words, motor development
means the development of movement various motor abilities
from birth till death. In other words, motor developmetns the
progressive change in movement thoughout the life cycle. As
a matter of fact, the ability to move is essential for human
development. Various motor movements or motor skill are
essntial for everday life activies such as sitting, walking,
running, climbing, catching or holding, jumping skipping or
throw etc. Motor development can be divided into two types
i.e,. gross motor development and fine motor development.
Q. Mention types of motor development in child new.
Ans. 1. Gross motor development: It involves the development
of large muscles in the child’s body such as sitting, walking,
running, climbing etc.
2. Fine motor development. It involves the small muscles of
the body specially in the small movement of the fingers
and hands. For example, holding of javelin, discus, pole,
catching a cricket-ball, smashing a volley ball and
gymnastic exercies with or without apparatus etc.
Q. Explain any five factors affective motor Development in
Ans. The following are the most important factor which affect he
motor development in children.
1. Heredity: Children get ‘genes’ for all the developments
from their parents. It has been seen motor development of
a child follows the same pattern as of their parents. These
factors are related to body weight, size and strength.
2. Envirnmental Factrs: Envirnmental factors such as
physical and social factors are likely to effect the motor
development. Encouragement, love and security help the
child to take risk to explor fearlessy which leads to better
motor development. Those children, who are not encouraged or motivated towards motor activities have slow rate of motor development.
3. Nutrition: Nutritive food promoter good motor development.
If they get nutritive food, they get stronger & their
development is good. If they dont get proper nutrition they
are found to be less energetic & their motor development
taken place slowly.
4. Physical Acitivities: Those children, who do not perform
or practise physical activities regularly their motor
development becomes slow. However, the physical activities
must be according to the capabilities of children.
5. Opportunities: Children who get more opportunites to
perform more activities, motor development is better in
them. Opportunities to play give a better chance of
developing sensory motor activities. If porper opportunities
are not given to children their motor development cannot
take place in those childern properly.
6. Disability and Disease: Disability and disease affects
motor development. It reduces perfection in motor skills
whereas healthy perosn gain faster motor development.
7. Body Weight: Overweight and obese children have less
motor development whereas healthy child has more skill
8. Mental Ability: Motor development depends upon mental
level, thus small children have less perfectionn.
9. Regular Practice: With regular practice motor
development and perfection is gained.
10.Immuniztion. If mother and child both are immunized at a proper time it leads to good sensory motor development.
* Benefits of Physical Exerises on children
1. Builds healthy muscles,
2. Good Digestive Process,
3. Boost Energy level,
4. Improve neuro-muscular co-ordination,
5. Strengthen the lungs & Heart,
6. Control healthy weight,
7. Improve brains funciton,
8. Reduce injuries and diseases risk,
9. Improve joint’s flexibilty,
10. Maintain good postures,
11. Strengthnes bones & musles,
Q. Explain briefly about the motor development in middle
Ans. Middle childhood: The period of middle chiildhood starts for
7th year and continues up till 10th year. During this period
the changes, which takes place are-
a. Children become more energetic,
b. Strong desire to engage in various physical movements
c. Good eye-hand-leg coordination.
d. Better in balance and postures.
e. Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.
f. Coordinative abilities develop at the high level, while the flexibility develop at the slow level.
Q. Write the benefits of exerises during old age?
Ans. Benefits of exercies during old age
In low the chances of heart-related diseases.
Increases ability to work in daily life without fatigue.
Slows down ageing process.
The mode remains good, which reduces the change of
Physcial capacity increases.
Bones and muscles remain strengthened.
Reduces the chance of many lifestyle related diseases,
such as diabetes, cancer and high blood pressure, etc.
Q. Describe the exercies for Adolescnce.
Ans. Adolescence (13 to 19 years): During adolescence, moderate
to vigorous intensity exercises or physical activities should be
performed for at least 60 minutes or little more daily.
Adolescents should also indulge in muscle strengthening
exercies at least three days per week.
They should also perform bone strengthening exercises.
Adolescents or teenagers should avoid sedentary lifestyle.
Physcial activities or exercises such a running,
gymnastics, push ups, jumping rope, playing hockey,
basketball, swimming, tennis, and resistance exercises
(weight training) are also very beneficial during
Q. Explain the symptoms & corrective measures of kyphosis?
Ans. Symptoms: Distance between the scapula increase.
– The length of the chest muscles become short.
-- Shoulders tilt forward.
-- Neck tilt forward
-- Upper Body wt. lean forward.
Corrective Measures :- In order to cure kyphosis such types
of exercises are suggested, those increase the length of the
pectorals and provide strentgh to the thoracic region muscles.
such as :
1 Back stroke swimming.
5 Reverse bending on the swiss ball
6 Reverse butterfly
7 Pillow back extension
8 Marjaryasana (cat pose)
9 Adhomukha shananasana (Down word dog pose)
10 Ustrasana (Camel pose)
11 Half wheel pose (Ardha chakaarasana)
Q. Mention the symptoms causes & corrective measurs of knock knee.
Ans. Symptoms :
-- Knees touch each other in standing position.
-- Knees touch each other in walking.
-- Knees touch each other in running.
2 Defficiency of vit D
4 Early age walk or standing
6 Enlargement of medial ligament of both knees quickly as
compare to lateral ligament.
7 Lifting heavy load for long time.
Corrective measures :-
1 Horse riding
3 Standing with pillow between the knee
4 Use walking calliper
5 Straight leg lift.
6 Straight leg knee press on the towel placed under the knee
7 Side kicking the football
Q. Disscus the symptoms, causes & corrective neasuns of flat
Ans. Symptoms :
Pain in mid part of feet during standing & walking.
Disappearing the long arch of the feet
Complete feet print can be seen on the floor.
– Weakness of muscles & bones.
– over weight
– Carrying heavy load for long time.
– Faulty shoes.
Corrective Measures :-
– Writing with legs
– Walking or running on the sand.
– Jumping on toe
– Wearing proper shoes
– Pick the pebble with help of feet
– Walking on toe
– Ball under the feet game
– Wear the shoe with hankey inside the mid part of the feet.
Q. Descibe the symptoms, causes & corrective measuring of scoliosis?
Ans. Scoliosis Postural adaptation of the spine in lateral direction is called scoliosis. In fact, these are sideways curves and may be called scoliotic curves.
Indeed these curves are identified as either convexity right of
right convexity. A simple or single curve to the left or curve.
Scolotic curves may be found in ‘S’ shape.
(a) Causes of Scoliosis: Scoliosis may be due to many
reasons but the main reasons are diseases in the joints
of bones, under-developed legs, infantile paralysis,
rickets, carrying heavy loads on one shoulder, unhealthy
conditions, like inadequate lighting arrangement, uncomfortable desks, partial deafness and wrong standing posture. It may be caused by congenited or
acquired abnormalities of vertebrae, muscles or nerves.
1. Balanced diet should be taken
2. Studying should be avoided in sideways bending
3. Avoid walking for the long time while carrying weight
in one hand.
(c) Remedies: Scoliosis can be remedied by doing the
1. Bending exercises should be done on the opposite
side of the ‘C’ shaped curve.
2. Hold the horizontal bar with hands and lift your body
or hange for some time.
3. Hold the horizotal bar with your hands and swing your
body to the left and right sides.
4. Swim by using breaststroke technique.
Q. Discuss the symptoms, causes & corrective measure of bow legs?
Ans. Bow legs: There is a wide Gap between the kness.
– Gap between the knees are increased
– Knee moves in outward direction in standing, walking &
– Shape of legs look like the bow.
– Inlargement of lateral ligment of both knee quickly as
compare to medial ligament.
– Weakness of bones and muscle.
– Long time cross leg sitting.
– Faulty style of Walking.
– Early age standing and walking.
Corrective measures :
– Walking (feet twisted inward)
– Use of walking callipers.
– Massage therapy.
– Use those exercise which strengthen the muscles
surrounding the knee such as leg extension in laying
– Use yoga strap to bind the legs together then make cow
face posture & forward bending are recomended.
– Pilate exercise such as roll up & ballerina arms are effective
to tone legs.
– Garud Asana, Ardh-Matsyendrasana
Q.Express the reasons for woment to have less participation in sports?
Ans. 1. Lack of legislation
2. Lack of time
3. Lack of self-confidence
4. Male dominated caltural of sports
5. Lack of interest of spectators
6. No media coverage of women’s sports
7. Lack of female sports person as role models
8. Lack of fitness & wellness movement.
9. Lack of education among women.
10. Attitudes of society towards women’s sports
11. Lack of personal safety.
12. Lack of proper scientific equipments & facilities.
13. Sports & games are considered masculine.
14. Depression & Aggression level.
Q. Elucidate the steps to improve participation of women in
sports & games.
Ans. The steps to improve women particiation in the field of sports
1. Motivation and inspiration to women for participation.
2. Support from family and parents.
3. To organise camps, seminar and workshops.
4. To provide knowledge and media coverage.
5. Educating women at grass root level for participation.
6. Provide better infrastructure and facilities.
7. Ensuring safety and securitiy of women.
8. More opportunity for competition.
9. Develop new techniques and environments.
10. To build physical and psychological strength.
11. Healthy and balance food.
12. Better incentives and awards.
13. Change in attitude and perception at village level.
14. Equality and community mobilizing.
15. Developement of self Confidence.
16. Financial help
17. Employment and career
18. Designing and implementing government policies.
Q. What are the causes and risk factors of osteoporosis?
Ans. Osteoporosis is a sketal disorder which refers as to the
decreased bone material contens. There are various factors,
which lead to osteoporosis, these are :
A. Insufficient calcium in diet :- The main cause of
osteoporosis is intake of insufficient calcium in diet.
B. Amenorrhea :- Women suffering from Menstrual dysfunction
or Amenorrhoea for more than 6 months are likely to face
osteoporosis because the secretion of the hormone called
Oestrogen is decreased in those women. This hormone is
necessary for absorption of calcium in our body.
C. Eating disorder :- Eating disorder like anorexia and bulimia
etc. may also cause osteoporosis because their can be less
amount of calcium intake.
D. Bad Eating Habits :- Intake of Caffeine, Alchohol, tobacco
or smoking may lead to osteoporosis. These products have a
negative effect on Bone Density.
Q. Elaborate the various types of disorders/ problems related to menstrual dysfunction?
1. Absence of menstrual periods :- This problem may be due
to eating disorder, excessive exercise schedule, extreme level
of stress and medications etc.
2. Premenstrual syndrome :- Many girls may have symptoms
such as acne, backaches, Sore breasts, headaches,
constipation, depression, irritability and feeling anxious etc.
These symptoms may be faced by female before their
3. Abnormal Cramps :- These cramps are caused by a chemical
in the body that makes the muscles in the uterus contract.
4. Heavy or prolonged peroid :- It is common for a girl’s
menstrual period to be heavier on some days than others.
5. Irregular menstrual period :- The regular menstrual cycle
for a female is 28 days. However, it may very from 21 to 35
Q. What do you mean by female triad? Explain the causes of it?
Ans. Female triad means a syndrome in which osteoporosis,
amenorrhoea and eating disorders are present in the female.
The triad is a serious disorder or illness with life long health
consequences and can be very fatal. In fact it is syndrom of
three interrelated conditions.
(A)- Osteoporosis :- It is a skelton disorder which refers as
to the decreased bone material contents.
a. Insufficient calcium in diet,
c. Eating disorder,
d. Bed eating habbits,
(B) Amenorrhoea:- It is a menstrual disorder or illness in
female of 18 years or above either never began
menstruating or there is an absence of menstruation for
three mothss and more.
The factors or causes which may inspire or enhance the
chances of amenorrhoea,
A. Hormone changes
B. Intensive excises
C. Intake of less carbohydrates or calories.
(C) Eating disorders: When people began to eat more than
normal or very small amounts it is known as earing disorders.
These types are
1. Anorexia Nervosa
2. Bulimia Nervosa
Q. What do mean by Anorexia Nervosa what are its causes, symptoms and preventions.
Ans. Anorexia Nervosa: This is a psycho-physical condition. It is characterised by lack of appetite and a associated with the
subconscious desire to remain slim. Such a felling usually
develops in young women or adolescene female in order to
retain their body figure and image. As a result of this, there is
a refusal to maintain normal body weight from their fear of
becoming obese and spoiling their figure.
Anorexia is an eating disorder which is affecting the youth
nowadays., It is a dangerous disorder for our health and well
Anorexia can lead to many problems such as bone loss, loss
to skin integrity and many even cause menstruation to stop.
It puts great stress on the heart and interreges the risk of
heart attacks and other heart related problems. Individual
suffering from anorexia also face an increased risk of death.
Causes of Anorexia : Anorexia is an eating disorder that is
caused by a combination of several psychological social and
biological factors. Several other factors such as family
environment, personality traits and low self-esteem may also
lead to anorexia. The factors causing anorexia are as follows:
1. Psychological factors: Individuals suffering from anorexia
are generally perfectionists. Due to their obsession with
keeping themselves fit, they are always conscious about
their body. For this, they do not even hesitate to use
artifactual means. Eating too little, excessive exercise,
always being conscious about their body weight and
physical appearance become the main causes of anorexia.
2. Social factors: Cultural and social constructs about being
thin and beautiful put severe pressure on individuals and
may cause anorexia. Specific social and cultural ideas
relating to health and beauty, promote weight loss and
begin thin as the ideal indicators of success and self-
worth. Sometimes, parents and relatives may also be
critical or their children’s physical appearance which may
lead to anorexia.
3. Biological factors: Biological factors such a circular
hormonal functions and nutritional deficients may cause
anorexia. Genetics also play a significant role in anorexia
as parents suffering from anorexia are more prone to having
children who are likely to develop anorexia.
Symptoms of Anorexia
1. Significant underweight: The individual having anorexia
will not be able to maintain BMI and will lose weight
2. Anaemia: Anorexia may be one of the leading causes of
anaemia. This leads to tiredness in a individual.
3. Low pulse rate: The individual having anorexia will have
low heart rate.
4. Low blood pressure: Anorexia may led to low blood
5. Decrease in body temperature: Low body temperature
is also one of the symptoms of anorexia. Due to low heart
rate and low blood pressure, temperature of body is not
6. Failure of menstruations or cessation of the same once
established: Irregular menses or Amenorrhoea may be
one symptom of anorexia. Irregularity in mensuration is
one of the main causes of anorexia.
7. Denial of illness: An individual suffering form anorexia
has the tendency to deny the facts related to the disorder.
8. Self-induced vomiting: An individual suffering from
anorexia will go the wash room frequently and induce vomit,
especially after and meal.
9. Excess eating at times. An individual suffering form
anorexia will eat excessively and when he is unable to
digest the food, they will induce vomit.
10.Laxative or derelicta abuse. An individual suffering from
anorexia will use diuretics and drain out fluids from his/
her body to remain slim. Individuals also use laxatives or
Prevention and Management of Anorexia
The prevention and management of anorexia and very important in the treatment of this disorder. The basic preventive measures used in anorexia are also follows:
1. People should be encourage to inculcate a positive self-
esteem and body image.
2. Body sizes should not be criticized and students should
not be taught to be preoccupied with their weight.
3. Students should have knowledge of generic factors that
determine body weight. They should be made to understand
that being thin is not the most important means to be
popular, beautiful or successful.
4. They should have a healthy approach towards their eating
and exercising habits and should avoid the company of
those people who are obsessed about their body weight.
Q. What is Bulimia? What are its causes symptoms and
Ans. Bulimia is an affecting adolescence girls or young women it is characterized by period of excessive eating (binge) alternating with normal eating.
Types of Bulimia 1. Purging, 2. Non-purging.
Causes of Bulimia: Bulimia is not the result of a single or
definitive cause. There are many factors that are related to
1. Genetic factors: Genetic factors play a vital role in the
development of bulimia if one or both parents of an
individing or siblinigs has bulimia then he/she is most
likely to suffer from this disorder.
2. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors also play
an important role in the development of bulimia in
individuals. If an individual has a problem of low self
esteem and body image,
3. To maintain weight categories in sports: Sportspersons
taking part in sports like Judo, wrestling, weight lifiting
etc. which have different weight categories are more
likely to suffer from this eating disorder.
4. Pressure of performance in sports: Sportsmen reduced
body weight will enhance their performance in sports
and increase their chances of success, thereby making
them vomit the food that they eat.
5. Social factors: Social factors such as peer pressure and preconceived notious about body weight and being thin, play a significant role in causing bulimia the media
also encourage the desire to thin among the youth.
Symptoms of Bulimia
– Frequent episodes of self-induced vomiting,
– Feeling of thirst,
– Swelling and inflammation in food pipe,
– Overeating or episodes of binge eating,
– Excessive physical activities to remain slim misuse of medical
– Red coloured eyes due to broken blood vessels caused by
– Peptic ulcers,
– Erosion of dental enamel,
– Disturbed body image,
Revelation and management of Bulimia : There is no fixed cure
for Bulimia. This disorder may be prevented upto some extent
1. Individuals should take a balanced diet and follow healthy eating
2. A proper regimen of exercise should be followed regularly to
maintain a healthy lifestyle.
3. Bulimia can also prevented by having a positive self and body
image. Individuals should not be critical of their body shapes
and sizes and focus or maintaining proper lifestyle.