For women’s participation in sports we have a look at ancient period. Regarding participation in the first modern Olympic (1896 Athens), there was no participation of women.
— Women participated first time in 1900 Olympics. (22 women participated in) — In 1904 six women participated.
— And after 100 years in 2000 Sydney Olympics 4069 women had participated.
— In 2008 Beijing Olympics 4637 women participated.
Participation in India
— In 2000 karnam Malleshwari was the first woman who won bronze medal in Sydney Olympic from India.
— In 1984 performance of P.T. Usha was very good in Athletics.
— In 2012 london olympics Saina Nehwal and M.C. Maricom got bronze medal.
In 2016, Rio Olympics, Sakshi Malik won bronze medal, P.V. Sandhu won silver medal where as Deepa Karmakar opened new dimesions in gymanastics. Over the past several decades the participation of women in sports in sports field has increased tremendously. But really, it is a matter of regret for all of us to know that sports is such a field where gender inequality in strongly evident. The general social environment has not only inhibited women from participation in sports but has also criticise them when they participate. Many people comment for women “Why don’t they stay in the kitchen where they belong”?
But Now time has changed. Women are capable of changing society. Now the ideology suggests that women are participating in every sphere of life and proving themselves globally.
6.1 Sports Participation of Women in India
Reasons for the low rate of sports participation by women in India
1. Gender equity & social attitude a. No parental encouragement b. Traditional society c. Less motivation and inspiration d. Women constraining other women
2. Lack of plans and initiatives for sports women by the Government a. Male dominant culture b. Less availability of women coaches c. No independent games facilities for women d. More emphasis on study e. Less competition
3. Economic Factors 4. Social Customs and Rights 5. Low Health Consciousness 6. Stress on Academics 7. Media Coverage
8. Lack of Incentives & Career
Menarche is the first menstrual bleeding of the young girl (9-16 yrs.)
Menstrual dysfunction is a disorder or irregular menstrual cycle in women. It can also be defined as “An abnormal bleeding during the menstrual cycle”.
1. Absence of menstrual periods:- This problem may be due to eating disorder, excessive exercise schedule, extreme level of stress and medications etc.
2. Premenstrual syndrome :- Many girls may have symptoms such as acne, backaches, Sore breasts, headaches, constipation, depression, irritability and feeling anxious etc.
These symptoms may be faced by female before their menstruation.
3. Abnormal Cramps :- These cramps are caused by a chemical in the body that makes the muscles in the uterus contract.
4. Heavy or prolonged peroid :- It is common for a girl’s menstrual period to be heavier on some days than others.
5. Irregular menstrual period:- The regular menstrual cycle for a female is 28 days. However, it may very from 21 to 35 days.
6. Delay in the first menstrual period.
6.2 Special consideration (Menarche, Menstrual, Dysfunction, Pregnancy, Menopause)
1. Menarche:- “It is the first natural cycle and is a central event of female puberty”.
2. Menstrual dis-function:- Painful and irregular menstrual cycle of women to be on the rise with the decreasing involvement of the women in the physical fitness and endurance sports.
Female athlete triad is a syndrome in which eating disorders, oesteoporosis and amenorrhea, eating disorders effect adversely on the body.
1. Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder in which reduction in bone mass may cause fracture.
a. Insufficient calcium in diet.
c. Eating disorder
d. Bad eathing habits
Osteoporosis:- Low bone mass.
2.Amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual periods. It may be either primary meaning woman has never developed menstrual periods) or secondary (absence of menstrual periods in a woman who was previously menstruating). There are many reasons responsible for amenorrhea including extensive exercise and improper diet. Exercising intensively and not consuming enough calories can lead to decreases in hormones that result in a girl’s periods becoming irregular or stopping altogether.
Amenorrhoea:- Absence of menstrual period for more than 6 months.
Anemia:- Resulting from the inadequate nutrition.
In this eating disorder the female athlete only think about food, dieting, and body weight all the time. They have distorted body structure. Other individuals usually feel them that are becoming thin but they do not believe this. In front of the mirror they see themselves obese.
In this eating disorder the female eats excessive amount of food and then vomits it in order not to gain weight. In this disorder, an individual binges on food and feels a loss of control. Then to prevent weight gain try to vomit the food.
6.4 Psychological aspects of women athlete
1. More goal oriented 2. Psychological stronger 3. Less aggressive 4. Fast adaptation 5. Image conscious 6. Poise & confidence
Sociological aspects of women athlete
1. Family – Family is a very significant social factor, which is generally responsible for early sports socialization. The socializing process at home for both sex is different. Males usually get more support and encouragement to get involved in sports activities. They are further provided with more facilities to encourage and support participation in sports and games. However female usually are not encouraged to get involved in sports activities.
2. School – The culture of sports is generated in schools and reputation of school is dependent on the success of male and females as sports personalities. Lots of schools do not have girl teams as male teams (soccer/ wrestling/boxing etc/) They do not have proper arrangements for coaches and sports facilities for females.
3. Culture – Cultural beliefs have great impact on the involvement of females in sports. Many cultures still firmly believe that women’s place is in the kitchen. The participation in the sports masculinises females are viewed negatively.
4. Attitude and prejudices – Attitude and prejudices of society play significant role in sports participation; some females avoid certain sports for fear of being perceived masculine. Due to such attitude and prejudices of society regarding sexuality inhibit females to participate.
5. Religious faith discourages woman participation in sports 6. Illiteracy in society 7. Biological inferiority 8. Male dominance 9. Lesser concentration to develop woman sports equipment & facilities 10. Less competitive spectators for woman sports
Q. Briefly describe the process and scoring of the 50 m standing start and 600 m walk/Run
Ans. 50 m standing start.
Procedure: The test invalves running a single maximum sprint over 50 meters, with the time recorded, start from a stationary standing position (hands cannot touch the ground) with one foot in front of the other. The front foot must be behind the starting line. Once the subject is ready, the stater give the instructions “set” then “go” participant should be encouraged to not slow down before crossing the finish line.
Scoring: Time take to cover 50 m distance is expressed in
600 m walk/Run
Procedure: 600 m walk and Run can be orgainzed on track
subject runs a distance of 600 m. The subject takes a standing
start from the stating line. The subject may walk in between.
However, the objective is to cover the distance in the shortest
time when he crosses the finish line he is informed of his
Q. Standing broad Jump tests the strength of which part of the body. Explain the procedure of the test.
Ans. The explosive strength of the legs is tested by standing broad jump.
Procedure: A take off line is marked on the ground. Subject
stand just behind the take off line with the feet several inches
apart. The subject swings the arms and bends the knees to
take a jump in the long jump pit. Three trials are given to the
subject. The distance is measured from the take off line to
the heel or other part of body that touches the ground nearest to the take off line. All jumps are measured and the best one is recorded.
Q. Briefly describe the process and scoring of the 4 × 10 m
Ans. Shuttle Run
Purpose: To measure speed and agility
Procedure: Two parallel lines are marked 10 mts aport wooden blocks 2 × 4 inches are kept on one side of marked line. The student stands opposite to the line, where wooden block are placed. On start the student runs towards wooden blocks and pick one of them. Then places the block on the line from where he started. The student coutinues to run and similary lift other block and place at starting line.
Scoring: The score is each lap time for completes trial. The
better of two trials is taken as final score.
Q. Enlist of motor fitness test and explain the proces of any Two test.
Ans. Motor fitness test
1. 50 m standing start
2. 600 m Run/walk
3. Sit and Reach test
4. Partial Curlup
5. Push ups (Boys)
6. Modified push ups (Girls)
7. Standing Broad Jump
8. Agility - 4 × 10 m shuttle Run
1. Sit and Reach test
Procedure: This test involves sitting on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead. Shoes should be removed. The soles of the feet are placed flat against the box. Both kness should be locked and pressed flat to the floor The tester may assist by holding them down with the palms facing downwords, and the hands on top of each other or side by side, The subject reaches forward along the measuring line as for as possible. Ensure that the hands remain at the same level not one reaching further forward than the other. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches same level not one reaching further forward than the other. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and holds that position for at one two seconds while the distance is recorded.
Scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest centimeter or half inch as the distance reached by the hand.
2. Partial Cur/up:
Procedure: The starting position is lying on the back with the knees flexed and feet 12 inches from the buttocks. The feet cannot be held or rest against on object. The arms are extended and are rested on the thighs.The head is in a neutral position. The subject curls up with a slow controlled movement, until the students shoulders come off the mat two inches, then back down again one complete curl up is completed every three seconds and are continued until exhaustion. There is pause in the up or down position, the curl - ups should be continous with the abdominal museles engaged through out.
Scoring: Record the total number of curl-ups, only, correctly performed curl ups should be counted.
General Motor Fitness Test :
Barrow’s Three-items General Motor Ability Test Motor abilities play a very vital role in achieving apex position in games and sports. Motor fitness invovles speed, agility, power, coordination, strength and so on. These components of fitness are necessary for competing at top levels. For measuring general motor fitness, the three-item test battery of Barrow is used. In this test, battery of three items such as standing broad jump, zig-zag run and medicine ball put are used to measure the general motor ability of an individual.
The details of administration of these tests are described below:
1. Standing Broad Jump (for measuring leg strength)
Equipment and material : A mat of 5 × 12 feet and a measuring taps, if the mat is unmarked.
Procedure : A take-off line is marked on the ground. Subject stands just behind the take-off line with the feet several inches apart. The subject swings the arms and bends the knees to take a jump in the long jump pit. Three trials are given to the subject. The distance is measured from the take-off line to the heel or other part of body that touches the ground nearest to the take-off line. All jumps are measured and the best one is recorded.
Standing broad jump
2. Zig-Zag Run (for measuring agility and speed)
Equipment and material : Stopwatch, five obstacles and
space enought to accomodate the 16 × 10 feet course.
Prodecure : The subject begins from a standing start on the command to run. The subject runs the prescribed pattern stated to him as quickly as he can without gasping. Three complete circuits are run. The stopwatch is started when the command to run is given and stopped immediately when the subject crosses the finish line. The time is recorded to the nearest tenth of a second. Before running the zig and zag run, the subject should warm up properly. The subject should wear proper fitting shoes with good traction to avoid blisters and slipping. Demonstration of the pattern of the course should be given by the administrator before the beginning of the run.
3. Medicine Ball Put (for measuring arm and shoulder
Equipment and material : A medicine ball and measuring
Procedcure : The subject stands between two restraining lines which are 16 feet apart. In case of girls, a medicine ball of 1 kg is provided, whereas in case of boys a medicine ball of 3 kg is provided to be put. After that he/she attempts to put the medicine ball out as far as possible without crossing the restraining line. He/she should hold the medicine ball at the junction of the neck and shoulder then the ball should be put straight down the course. Three trials are given to him/her. The best of three trials is recorded. The distance is computed to the nearest foot. A put in which the subject commits a foul is not scored. However, if all the trials are fouls, subject he/ she should try until he/she make a fair put.
Q. Explain the Rock port one mile test’s Administration.
Ans. It is also known as Rock port fitness walking test. Its objective is to check or observe the development of the individual VO2 max, (maximum volume of oxygen.)
Administration of Rockport Fitness Walking Test : The Athlete is asked to start the mile long walk and complete it as quickly as possible. The Athlete has to bear in mind that She/he does not start running or jogging in an effort to complete the test. Once the athlete has completed walking the mile, the time taken to do so is recorded in minutes and
hundreds of seconds and the heart rate is recorded as beats
per minute. After the time and heart rate are recorded, the
following variables are also recorded:
Q. What do you understand by cardiovascular fitness! To calculate the fitness index of an individual.
Ans. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to
supply oxygen rich blood to the workng muscle tissues and
the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy
Fitlness index = Duration of activities in seconds)×100
2× sum of three pulse count after rest
Q.Explain harvard Step Test in details.
Ans. Harvard Step Test : The harvard step test is a test of aerobic
fitness, developed by Brouha et al. (1943).
Objective : The objective of this test to monitor the development
of the athlete’s cardiovascular system.
Required Resources :-
Gym bench (45 cm high)
How to Conduct the test
This test requires the athlete to step up and down off a 45 cm
high gym bench for 5 minutes at a rate 30 steps/minute.
The athlete warm up for 10 minutes
The assistant gives the command “Go” and starts the
The athlete steps up-up and down-down onto a standard
gym bench once every two seconds for five minutes (150
The assistant stops the test after 5 minutes.
The assistant measures the athlete’s heart beat rate (bpm)
one minute after finishing the test pulse 1
The assistant measures the athlete’s rate (bpm) two
minutes after finishing the test - Pulse-2
/ The assitant measure the althlete’s heart rate (bpm) three
minutes after finishign the test pulse 3.
Fitness Index physical efficiency Index
=Duration of examises (In sec) 100 /2 × sum of heart beat after rest.(three counts)
Short method physical fitness Index
= Duration of examises (In sec) 100 /5.5 × pulse cont of 1-1.5 min after exemises (one count)
Q. Discuss the Back Scratch test for upper body flexibility.
Ans. Back Scratch Test : Purpose :- To assess the upper body (shoulder) flexibility, which is important in performing various jobs such as combing one’s hair, putting on overhead garments and reaching for a seat belt etc.
Equipment Required:- A ruler.
Procedure:- This test is performed in standing position. Keep one hand behind the head and back over the shoulder and reach as far as possible down middle of the back. Palms should touch to body and the fingers should be downwards. Then carry other arm behind back palm facing outward and fingers upward and reach up as far as possible trying to touch or overlap the middle fingers of both hands. Fingers should be aligned. Measure the distance between the tips of the fingers. If the finger tips touch then the score is zero. If they do not touch measure the distance between the fingertips (–ve score). If they overlap measure by how much (+ive score). Practise two times and then test
Q. Explain the chair stand test for lower body strength.
Ans. Chair Stand Test : Purpose. The main purpose of this test is to measure the lower body strength, particularly legs strength which is usually required for various tasks such as climbing stairs, getting in and out of vehicle, bathtub or chair.
Equipments Required : A chair with a straight back and a
seat of at least 44 cm and a stopwatch.
Instructions for Participants:-
1. The participant should sit in the middle of the chair.
2. She/He should keep his hands on the opposite shoulder
crossed at the wrists.
3. The feet should be flat on the floor.
4. Her/His back should be erect.
5. Repeat sit up and down for 30 seconds.
Procedure : Keep the chair against the wall. The participant sits in the middle of the seat. His/her feet should be shoulder width apart and flat on the floor. The arms should be crossed at the wrists and held close to the chest. From the sitting position, the participant stands up completely then back down at the start of the signal. This is repeated for 30 seconds. Count the total number of complete chair stands. In case the participant has completed a full stand from the sitting position when the time is finished the final stand is counted in the total.
Q.Which test is used to measure the co-ordination and agility of senior citizen? Write in detail.
Ans. Eight Foot up and Go Test: Rekli & Jone’s Senior Citizen
Test : This test is a co-ordiantion and agility test for senior citizens.
Purpose : To assess speed, agility and balance while moving.
These are important in perfoming various jobs which require
quick manoeuvring, such as getting of a bus in time and to
answer the phone etc.
Equipments Required : A chair with straight back (about 44
cm high) a stopwatch, cone marker, measuring tape and an
area without any hindrances.
Procedure : Keep a chair next to the wall and the marked, 8
feet in front of the chair. The participant starts completely
seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground.On the command ‘Go’’ stopwatch is started and the participant stands and walks (no running at all) as quickly as possible to and around cone and returns to the chair to sit down. Time is noted as She/he sits down on the chair. Two trials are given to the participant.
Q. Discuss chair sit and reach test in briefly.
Ans. Chair sit and reach test
Daily Benifit : Lower body flexibility is important for preventing lower back pain. It also plays a role in balance, posture, in fall prevention, or walking. Lower body flexibility is important for maintaining an active, independent lifestyle.
Purpose : This test measures lower body flexibility.
Equipment required : Ruler, straight back or folding chair,
(about 17 inches/ 44 cm high)
The subject sit on the edge a chair (placed against a wall
One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is
extended forward with the knee straight, heel on the floor,
and ankle bent at 90°.
Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle
fingers even. Instruct the subject to inhale, and then as
they exhale, reach forward toward the toes by bending at
Keep the back straight and head up. Avoid bouncing or
quick movements, and never stretch to the point of pain.
Keep the knee straight, and hold the reach for two seconds.
The distance is measured between the tip of the fingertips
and the toes.
If the fingertips touch the toes then the score is zero. If
they do not touch, measure the distance between the
fingers and the toes (a negative score). If they overlap,