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Physical Education Class 12th ~ UNIT - 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

Gender differences between physical and physiological parameters

There are following physical differences between males and females:
Body size: there is a lot of difference in body size of males and females. The size of body of males is larger in comparison to females.
Body shape: In males ‘V’ Shaped body is considered the best whereas in females slim constitution of body is considered the best.
Vertebrae, legs and knees: The vertebrae in females is long in comparison to hands and legs whereas in males the vertebra is small in comparison to hands and legs.
Centre of gravity: The height of female is usually found is less in comparison to males. The centre of gravity of females is less high and the height of centre of gravity of males if high. This is the reason why the stability in females is more than males.
Abdomen: females have larger abdominal cavity than males. This is due to the fact that females have additional organs of reproduction.
Bones of shoulders: The shoulder bones of females are found to be weak in comparion to shoulder bones of males. Due to this reason, females are provided low weight equipments in throwing events.
The physiological difference in females and males are follows:
Muscular strength: The muscular strength of females is less than males. The contraction and extension of muscles of females is less forceful whereas males have more forceful contraction and extension of muscles.
Blood circulation: The size of heart in females is smaller in comparison to males.and also there is less amount of blood in females than males. Generally, the heart rate of females remain more than males.
Respiratory organs: Lungs of females are smaller in comparison to males. That’s why, females have less endurance than males. In fact, lung capacity of normal healthy female is 10% less in comparison to male of similar shape and size.
Menstrual cycle: Females should not perform strenuous and vigorous works during menstrual cycle whereas in males there is no such type of cycle.

Physiological factors for determining strength.

The following are the factors for determining strength:
  • Muscle composition: There are two types of fibres in muscles i.e. fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibres. The muscles which consist of more percentage of fast twitch fibres will produce more strength.
  • Size of the muscle: The strength of an individual depends on the size of muscle. As larger and bigger muscle produce more force and with the help of different methods of strength training , the size of the muscle can be increased.
  • Body weight: there is a positive relation between body weight and strength. The individuals who are heavier are stronger than the individuals who are lighter in weight.
  • Intensity of nerve impulse: A muscle is composed of no. of motor units. The total force of muscle depends upon the number of contracting motor units. Whenever, a stronger nerve impulse from central nervous system excite more number of motor units , the muscle will contract more stongly or it can be said that the muscle will produce more force or strength.

Physiological factors for determining speed.

The following are the factors for determining speed:
  • Muscle composition: The muscles which consist of more percentage of fast twitch fibrescontract with morespeed and produce a greater speed. Different muscles of the body have different pwercentage of fast twitch fibres.
  • Explosive strength: it depends on the shape, size and coordination of muscles. For very quick and explosive movement, explosive strength is required. The related proportion of fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibres determines the maximum possible speed with which the muscle can contract.
  • Flexibility: It also determines the speed. Good flexibility allows maximum range of movements and also enables complete utilization of explosive strength.
  • Biochemical reserves and metabolic power: muscles requires more amount of energy and high rate of consumption for maximum speed performance. For this purpose the stores of ATP & CP in the muscles should be enough. If the store is less, the working process of the muscles slows down after short time.

Physiological factors for determining flexibility.

The physiological factors for determining flexibility are:
  • Muscle strength: Flexibility depends on the level of strength. Weak muscles can become a limiting factor for achieving higher range of movement. Muscle strength is highly trainable therefore, it can enhance flexibility.
  • Joint structure: There are several different types of joints in human body. Some of the joints intrinsically have a greater range of motion.eg. the ball and socket joint of the shoulder has the greatest range of motion.
  • Age and gender: flexibility decreases with the advancement of age. It can be enhanced with the help of training. Gender also determines the flexibility as females tends to be more flexible than males.
  • Internal environment:The internal environment of an athlete influences the flexibility. If internal temperature increases flexibility increases; if decreases flexibility decreases.
Previous injury: Injuries to connective tissues and muscles ultimately lead to reduced flexibility

Physiological factors determining endurance.

Aerobic capacity:-
(1)oxygen intake
(ii) oxygen transport
(iii) oxygen uptake
(a) Energy reserves,
(b)Lactic acid tolerance,
(c) Movement economy,
(d) Muscle composition
Oxygen Uptake:- It is highest rate at which oxygen can be taken up and consumed by the heart per minute.
Cardiac Output:- The cardiac output is simply the amount of blood pumped by the hear per minute.
Hydration and Endurance Exercise: – Sweating is normal physiological response to prolonged exercise, required for the dissipation of hear produced during energy metabolism

Effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system

(i) Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 min. This increases directly with increasing exercise intensity.
(ìì) The heart rate increases from a resting rate of 72 beats/min to 150 beats/min or even more.
(ííi) The stroke volume, meaning the amount of blood pumped into the Aorta with every heartbeat, increases from a resting volume of 70-90 mL to 100-120 mL per beat.
(ìv) Exercise increases the plasma volume of blood by 12 Op:, but total blood volume may reduce slightly.
(V) Blood flow is redistributed with more blood going to the muscles, heart and skin, while blood in the kidneys and abdomen is reduced.
(vì) Blood pressure increases due to exercise because there is more blood flowing in the blood vessels.

Effects of exercise on muscular system.

  • Size and shape of muscle changes: Regular exercise changes the shape and size of the muscle. Cells of the muscles are enlarged which change the shape and size of the muscle.
  • Correct body posture; regular exercise keeps the correct posture of the body by strengthening the muscles. The postural deformities do not occur. If there is any physical deformity, then it is removed.
  • Food storage increases: the capacity of food storage in body can be enhanced by doing regular exercises. This stored food can be utilized immediately when required.
  • Toned muscles: regular exercise helps in keeping the muscles in toned position. Muscles become firm and maintain a slight, a steady pull on the attachments.
  • Efficient movement of muscles: The movement of muscles becomes efficient and smooth. The movements during different activities become attractive.
  • Change in connective tissues: the connective tissues become powerful. These tissues can bear the stress of strenuous activity.

Effects of exercise on respiratory system.

  • Increase in Tidal air capacity: by doing regular exercise it has been noted that there is an increase in the amount of tidal air capacity of an individual.
  • Decrease in rate of respiration: When a beginner starts exercising his rate of respiration increases. But when the same individual perform exercise daily, his rate of respiration decreases in comparison to the beginner at rest.
  • Strong will power: regular exercise increases the will power of an individual. As pranayama, the specific exercise for lungs increases the will power of the doer.
  • Unused alveolus becomes active : Regular exercise activates the unused alveolus because much amount of oxygen is required in vigorous activities of daily routine. The passive alveolus become active.
  • Increase in vital air capacity: The capacity of vital air capacity varies from 3500cc to 4500cc in a normal adult. Due to regular exercise its capacity increases upto 5500cc.
Ageing is the process of becoming older. It represents the accumulation of changes in a person over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change.

Role  of regular exercise on ageing process,

Regular exercise keeps the human body livelier, fitter and In better condition, thus delaying the ageing processes. As Given below :
(I) exercise reduces the loss of elasticity from the lungs and chest wall agencies increase muscle strength and hypertrophy by increasing the cross-sectional area of the Slow Twitch Fibers (sm and Fast Twitch Fibers (FTF). This slows down ageing · The body composition changes due to exercise by reducing the fat content of the body, thus slowing down the ageing process. fu Exercise impel flexibility by strengthening the musculoskeletal systems, thereby preventing the bickering of joints. This also slows the ageing process.


Q. Discuss the physiological factors, determine the strength as a component of physical fitness?
Ans. 1. Muscle size: Bigger and larger muscles can produce more force. Males have larger muscles than females so the size muscles and strong can be improved with the help of weight training.
2. Body weight: The individuals who are heavier are stronger
then the individuals who are lighter for example the heavier
weight lifters than the Gymnastic or other games players.
3. Muscle composition: The muscels which have more
percentage of fast twitch fibers can produce more strength
while the slow twitch fibers are not capable to contract faster
but they are capable to contract for a longer duration. The
percentage of fast twitch fibers and slow twich fibers is
genetically determined and can not be changed through
training.
4. Intensity of the never impulse: When a stronger nerve
impulse from central nervous system excite more number of
motor units, the muscels will contract more strongly or it can
side that the muscle will produce more force or strength.


Q. Discuss the physiological factors, determine the endurance
as a component of physical fitness:
Ans. Aerobic capacity:
* oxygen intake
* oxygen uptake
* oxygen transport
* Energy Reserve
Anaerobic capacity :
– Storage in body of ATP and CP (phosphogen stock)
– Buffer capacity - in muscles lactic acid accumlation ineffective
– Endurance of lactic acid
– VO2 max. This is the quantity of oxygen, which active muscles use during exercise in one minute.

Q. Discuss how physiological factors determine flexbility? 
Ans. 1. Muscle strength :- The muscle should have minimum
level of strength to make the movement, specially against
the gravity or external force.
2. Joint structure :- There are different types of joint in
human body, some of the joints intrinsically have greater
range of motion than others. For example. The ball and
socket joint of the shoulder has the greatest range of
motion in comparison to the knee joint.
3. Internal environment :- Internal environment of athlete
influences the flexibility. For example-warm bath increases
body temperature and flexibility whereas 10 minutes
outside stay in 10°c temperature reduces the body
temperature and flexibility.
4. Injury :- Injuries to connecting tissues and muscles can
lead to thickening or fibrocin on the effected area.
Fibrous tissues are less elastic and can lead to limb
shortening and lead to reduce flexibility.
5. Age and gender :- Flexbility decreases with the
advancement of age. However it is trainable. It can be
enhanced with the help of training, as strength and
endurance are enhanced. Gender also determine the
flexibility. Females tend to be more flexible than male.
6. Active and sedentary life style :- Regular activities
enhance the flexibility, whereas inactive individual looses
flexibility due to the soft tissues and joints shrinking and
loosing extensibility.
7. Heredity :- Bony structures of joints length and flexibilities
of the joint capsules and surrounding ligaments are
genetical and can be altered by stretching programs.



Q.2. Describe the physiological factor determine the speed? 
Ans. 1. Explosive strength- For every quick and explosive
movement, explosive strength is indispensable. Like, a
quick punch in boxing can not be delivered if the boxer
lacks explosive strength. Explosive strength further
depends on muscle composition, muscle size, and muscle
coordination.
2. Muscle composition- The muscle which have more fast
twitst fibers. They can do more speed. The muscle
composition is gentically determined. We will improve it
only by some training methods.
3. Mobility of nervous system- Motor and sensory nevers
of nervous system can be determined by the mobility of
nervous system. By training only we can limited extent in
the mobility of nervous system because speed is
determined to a great extent by genetic factors.
4. Elasticity and Relexing capacity of muscle- Through
the elasticity of muscle, muscle can move to a maximum
range which reduces the inner hurdles and is instrumental
in speeding up the activity. The muscles which get relaxed
soon, they contract easily.
5. Bio-chemical Reserves and Metabolic Power- For
doing the exercises which are done quickly muscles need
more energy. This energy in our muscles is obtained
through the prensence of phosphosen (ATP) and creating
phosphate (CP). The percentage of power and quantity
in ATP and CP can be increased through training.


Q. Explain the five effect of exercise on the cordiorespiratory system.
Ans. Increase in heart rate :- When an individual starts exercise,
his heart rate increases as per the intensity and duration of
exercise.
Increase in stroke volume :- Stroke volume increases
proportionally with exercise intensity. It is measured in ml/
beat.
Increase in cardiac output :- Cardiac output increases
proportionally with the intensity of exercise’s is measured in ltr/ mintue.
Increases in blood flow :- Cardio-vascular can be distribute
more blood to those tissues which have more demand and
less blood & those tissues which have less demand for oxygen.
Increase in blood pressure :- During the exercise, systolic
blood pressure can increase while diastolic blood pressure
usually remains unchanged even during the intensive exercise.
Increase in vital air capacity- It is the amount of air which
an individual can inhale and exhale with maximum effect. its
capacity varies from 3500 cc. Dut to exercise its capacity
increases upto 5500 cc.
Increase in Residual air volume- Dut to regular exercise
increases the capacity of residual volume from normal
capacity.
Passive Alveolus become Active- Reguler exercise activates
the unused alveoles because much amount of 02 is required
in prolonged exercise of daily routine.
Minute volume decrease- Decrease the volume of oxygen
in per minute.
Second wind almost finished- Due to regular exercise need
of second wind is almost finished.
Increase Endurance- If exercise is performed regularly and
for a longer period, it increases endurance. An activity can
be done for alonger period without taking any rest.


Q.1. List the effects of exercise on muscular systsem and explian four in detail? 
Ans.
1. Increase in shape of muscles
2. Formation of new capillaries
3. Muscles Remain in tone Position
4. Increase in Activenese of fibres
5. Correct body posture
6. Improves Reaction time
7. Reduction in extra fat
8. Increase in strength of connective tissues
9. Efficiency in muscle movements
10.Delay fatigue
11. Enhances body figure
12.Excercise prevents diseases effects of exercise in muscular system.


1. Muscle Hypertrophy- Due to regular exercise a good
growth in size of muscles.
2. Capillaristion- Increase the number of capillaries due to
regular exercise and the colour will be dark red.
3. Control Extra fat- Regular exercise controls the extra fat
of body. Exercises burn the entra calories.
4. Delay fatigue- Regular exercise delay fatigue. This fa-
tigue is mainly due to formation of carbon dioxide, lactic acid and acid phasphate.
5. Posture- Regular exercise helps in improving posture by
improving postural defomities.
6. Strength and speed- Regular exercise improve the
stength and speed muscle cells.
7. Increases food storage- The food storage capacity is
increased when regular exercise are done. This storage
of food can be utilised immediately when it is needed.



Prevention from Sports Injuries :
1. Warming up, stretching and cooling down.
2. Undertaking training prior to competition to ensure readiness
to play.
3. Including appropriate speed work in training programe so
muscles are capable of sustaining high acceleration forces.
4. Including appropriate stretching and strengthening exercises
in weekly training programs.
5. Gradually increasing the intensity and duration of training.
6. Maintaining high levels of cardiovascular fitness and muscle
endurance to prevent fatigue.
7. Allowing adequate recovery time between workouts or
training sessions.
8. Wearing protective equipments, such as shin guards. Mouth
guards and helmets.
9. Pre participation-medical check up.
10. Ensuring the playing surface and the sporting environment
are safe and clear from any potentially dangerous objects.
11. Wearing appropriate footwear that is well fitted and provides
adequate support and contraction for the playing surface.
12. Drinking water before, during and after play.
13. Avoiding activities that cause pain.
14. Avoid De-hydration & over training.
15. adequate & effectively maintained facillities.
16. Psychological & environmental condition of players.
17. Balanced diet.



Q. Define soft tissue injuries in the sports? Write its preventive measures?
Ans. Soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support or surround other structures and organs of the body the muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascial, nerves, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, etc. soft tissue injuries involve injuries to muscles, ligaments and tendons in the body.
Preventive measures of soft tissue injuries:’
1. Proper warming up
2. Proper conditioning of body
3. Scientific equipments & facilities
4. Clean & plain surface of play grounds
5. Knowledge rules & regulation of sports events.
6. Actively & alterness participation during the sports
training & competition.
7. Fatigue, sickness & injuries’s condition to avoid the
participation in the sports training.


Prevention of Dislocation of Joints :
1. Adequate warm-up should be performed prior to any
physical activity.
2. Proper conditioning should be done in preparatory
period.
3. Stretching exercises should be included in warm-up.
4. Players should be careful and alert during practice
and competition.
5. Protective equipment should be used as per the
requirement of the games/sports.
6. Practice should be discontinued during fatigue.
7. Players should have good anticipation and
concentration power.
8. Always obey the rules and regulations.
9. Proper cooling down after the physical activities.



Q. Discuss the causes of fracture?
Ans. Fracture usually occurs due to a high impact on the bone. It
can be caused by overuse.
The most common causes of fracture are:
1. In such sports events where there is a high impact.
2. Traumatic, forceful and unnatural movements of the
body.
3. Prolong long distance walking & running
4. Sudden falls on hard surface
5. Direct strike or hit with any solid sports equipment
6. Osteoporosis




Tips of Preventing of Sports Injuries
1. Avoid training when you are tired.
2. Increase your consumption of carbohydrate during
periods of heavy training.
3. Increase in training should be matched with increase
in resting.
4. Any increase in training load should be preceded by
an increase in strengthening.
5. Treat even seemingly minor injuries very carefully to
prevent them from becoming a big problem.
6. If you experience pain during training, STOP your
training session immediately.
7. Never train hard if you are stiff from the previous effort.
8. Pay attention to hydration and nutrition.
9. Use appropriate training surfaces.
10. Training and competition areas should be clear from
hazards.
11. Equipments should be appropriate and safe to use.
12. Introduce new activities very gradually.
13. Allow a lot of time for warming-up and cooling down.
14. Check overtraining and competition courses before
participation.
15. Train on different surfaces, with the right footwear.
16. Shower and change your dress immediately after cool
down to maintain hygiene.
17. Aim for maximum comfort when travelling.
18. Stay away from infectious areas when training or
competiting very hard.


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