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Physical Education Class 12th ~ UNIT - 10 Training In Sports

                     Training In Sports

Write the difference between Isometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic exercises.
Ans. Strength - It is the capacity of the whole body or of any of its parts to exert force.
There are two types of strength - Dynamic and static strength Following mention methods are used to improve strength.
1. Isometric Exercise : The word Isometric is comprised of 2 words “Iso”, “same” and “metric”, “length”. Means when we do these exercises work done cannot be observed. These exercise require less time and equipments and can be carried out anywhere. These exercises are useful for maintaining strength in case of injury.
Eg. Archery, Weight lifting, Gymnastic are the examples of Isometric movements. Work done = Force X Distance moved but distance moved is 0, therefore work done is zero.

2. Isotonic Exercises :- “Iso” Means ‘same’ and ‘tonic’ means tone. In these types of exercise when we do movements it can be observed directly. The length of muscles can be seen and called eccentric contraction and concentric contraction accordingly. Example When we throw a ball, jump, run, weight training, these type of contraction occurs. These Type of exercise is widely seen in games and sports. We can do these exercise with equipment or without equipment. These increase the length of the muscles and are good for conditioning in sports.

3. Iso-Kinetic Exercises -- “Iso” - ‘Same’ “and’  kinetic - motion’. These exercises were introduced by J.J. perrine in 1968. These exercise are done by specially design machine and are combination of Isotonic and Iso-metric exercises. These exercises develop strength of muscles. These type of movements are usually not applied in games and sports except water sports, skating, climbing, running etc.

Q. 1. Describe fartlek Training Method.
Ans. It is another method to develop the endurance ability. This method was developed by Swedish coach “ Gosta Holmer” in 1930. So it is also known as “Swedish play” or “Speed play” (charges his/her pace. Himself/herself according to surrounding (Hills, River, Forest, Mud etc.) This method helps in development of endurance of the sports person. Athlete changes his/her speed according. So it is self-disciplined in nature. The heart rate fluctuate between 140 - 180 beats/ minute Fartlek training involves verying our pace throughout our run. Alternating between fast and slow pace.

Q.2 Briefly explain the types of endurance.

“Endurance is one of the most important factor for high performance in games and sports” Explain
1. Basic Endurance :- It is the ability of an Individual to do the movement in which large no. of body and muscles involve at slow pace for  duration such as Walking, Jogging, Swimming at a moderate speed.
2. General Endurance :- It is the ability of an individual to resist fatigue satisfactorily caused by different type of activities.
3. Specific Endurance :- It is the ability of an individual to complete the task without any fatigue. It’s requirement depends upon the nature of activity (Games and Sports) requirement of specific endurance of a boxer is different from that of a wrestler.
• Speed Endurance :- It is the ability of an individual to perform a movement with high speed to resist of fatigue in activities upto 45 seconds.
• In short term endurance :- Short term endurance is needed to resist fatigue in sports activities lasting from 45 seconds to
2 minutes. Ex. 800 m race.
• The medium term endurance :- It is the activity lasting from
2.min to 11 minutes. Ex. 1500 & 3000 mts.
• Long term Endurance :- It is needed for those sports which require more than 11 minutes time.

Q.3. Differentiate between the continuous method and interval method. Describe its advantages.
Ans. 1. Continuous Method :- In continuous of method, the exercise is done for a long duration without taking rest. We do the exercise for a long duration. So the intensity of work is low. The heart rate during the exercise for a sportsman should be between 140-160 beats per minutes. For fast continuous method the heart rate of an athlete should be increased about 175 - 180. Min. Its duration of exercise should be more than 30 minutes. Ex. running walking, cycling, cross-country race etc.

Advantages :
1. Doing work continuously in spite of being tired strengthens the will to work.
2. According to this method increases the red blood cells in muscles.
3. In this method the working efficiency of heart and lungs get enhanced.
4. In this method Glycogen in muscles and liver gets increased.
5. Player develop self discipline and self confidence. Apart from this their will power also gets enhanced.
2. Interval Method :- This method is very effective for developing endurance for track runners. Intervals are given to the athlete in between the repetition for recovery. The recovery period for athlete varies from person to person. The Heart should go up to 18 beat/ min. and when the heart rate comes down to 120-130 beats/ min again the repetitation/ work starts. The training load should be given again after checking the heart rate of the athlete.
Ex. Middle distance race, foot ball, hockey etc.
Advantages :-
1. If an athlete perform these exercise in proper way then it will help to improve the working capacity in short time.
2. This method has a positive effect on both respiratory system and circulatory system.
3. The trainer can observe a player easily. The player in short time can enhance his endurance.
4. The player comes to learn about the effect of his training.
5. If the player mistake in executing the coach/ trainer can give him useful suggestion during recovery time. Thus, the players moral may be boosted.

Q.4. Explain the types of speed Ability?
1. Reaction speed ability: It is the ability to act against a signal.
2. Acceleration speed ability: It is the ability to achieve max speed in minimum possible time.
3. Movement speed ability : It is the ability to do a single small movement in minimum possible time.
4. Locator speed ability: It is the ability to maintain max speed as long as possible.
5. Speed Endurance: It is the ability to do the movement as quick as possible under the condition of fatigue.

Q.5. Differantiate between pace run and acceleration run.
Explain about accleration Run and pace run.
Beifly explain the methods for improving speed.

Ans. Pace run : Pace run means running the whole distance with a constant speed. Generally 800 metre and above races are included in pace races. An athlete can run a distance of 300 metre. at full speed but in longer races such a 800 mtr. or above, he must conserve his energy by reducing the speed.
Example-If there is a runner of 800m race. His best time is 1 minute 40 seconds. So he should run first 400 m in 49 seconds and next 400m in 51 seconds. This procedure is called pace race or pace run.
Acceleration Run : Acceleration run are usually used to develop speed indirectly by improving explosive strength, technique, flexibility and movement freuqency. It is the ability of a sprinter to achieve high speed from a stationary position.
For direct improvement of acceleration speed a sprinter should do 25-30 mt. sprint of 6-12 times. The maximum speed should be achieved within 5-6 sec. Sufficient intervals should be provided between the repetitions.

Q.6 What is speed?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to cover a unit distance in minimum time.

Q.7 Define is strength?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to overcome or act against resistance.

Q.8 What do you mean by endurance?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to resists the fatigue for long time.

Q.9 Write the meaning of flexibility?
Ans. It is ability of an individual to move his or her joints effectively through of full range.

Q.10 What is coordinative ability?
Ans. it is the ability of an individual to perform a sequence of movements smoothly and accurately.

Q.11 What do you mean by Speed endurance?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to perform body movement with high speed to resist fatigue in activities. Example - 400 mt race.

Q.12 What is strength endurance?
Ans. Strength endurance is the ability to develop sustained contraction force of muscles one time.

Q.13 Define is acceleration?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to reach & achieved speed from in shortest period of time.

Q.14. Explain is explosive strength?
Ans. It is the ability of an individual to overcome resistance with high speed.

Q.15. What is reaction ability?
Ans. it is that ability of an individual to react effectively and quickly to a signal.
It is two types :-
1. Simple / General reaction ability
2. Complex reaction ability

Q.16. Define movement speed?
Ans. it is the ability of an individual to do movement in minimum time. It depends upon techniques explosive strength, flexibility & coordination abilities.

Q.17. What is the meaning of sports training?
Ans. Sports training is a planned and controlled process in which, For achieving a goal, changes in complex sports motor performance.

Q.18. What are pace races?
Ans. Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete run the race with uniform speed. Example - 800mt, 1500mts.

Q.19. What do you mean by adaptation abilty?
Ans. It is the ability to adjust or change the movement effectively on the basis of changes or anticipated changes in the situation. Because in the most of the sports players have to play as per the circumstances.

Physical Education Class 12th

UNIT - 1 Planning in Sports

UNIT - 6 Test & Measurement in Sports

UNIT - 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

UNIT - 8 Biomechanics and Sports

UNIT - 9 Psychology and Sports

UNIT - 10 Training In Sports

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