Psychology and Sports
The word personality is derieved from the latin word ‘Persona’, which means ‘the mask’. So we say that personality is a mask that is used by an individual to deal with the society or the enviornment. Personality covers all the physical, mental, social, emotional interest and behavioural qualities of an individual.
“It is the integration of an individual’s most characterstics structure, mode of behaviour, interest, attitudes, capacities, aptitudes, and abilities. “Personality is the sum total of all biological innate disposition, impulses, tendencies, aptitudes and instincts of the individual, disposition and tendencies acquired by experience”.
Personality: Includes the physical, mental, social and emotional qualities, interest and behavior of an individual”.
Q.1. Elaborate the classification of personality given by Herbert sheldon.
Ans. Sheldon classified the body into 3 different parts: He was an American pychologist who was born in 1, Nov 1898. He divided personality on the basis of three physical structure.
(1) Ectomorphy with Cerebrotonia:
Ectomorph has narrow shoulder, thin arms and legs, a narrow face and a flat chest. They are slim and slender, thoughtful, quite, self concious, pessimistic and are not fond of physical activity.
(2) Mesomorphy with somatotonia:
Mesomorph are likely to have an athletic physic. There shoulders are broad, chest narrow, arms and legs strong. They have more muscles than fat. They are courageous, adventurous, assertive and competitive in nature.
(3) Endomorphy with viscerotonia:
Endomorphs has a round body characterised by wide hips, narrow shoulders and plump fatt they have extra body fat on their body parts such as arms and thigh. They are relaxed, easy going, fun loving and sociable in nature.
Q.2. Explain the jungs classification of human personality.
Ans. Accordig to carl a. Jung’s human personality can be classified into three catagory.
1. Introvert: If an individu al is motivated or energised by the internal world of thouguts, feelings and reflections is known as Introvert. They are having poor self confidence, moody,unsocial, quiet and pessimisst
2. Extrovert: This kind of individual associated with external world of object and other people. They believe in action, social settings, interacting. They are friendly, confident responsive and lively leader.
3. Ambivert: This kind of people have the mix trait of Introvert and Extrovert: They are having few friends.
Q.3. Define personality, write any four traits of Big-5 theory of personality in detail.
Ans. The word personality is derived from the latin word “Persona”means “Mask”. But it has the broder meaning like Biological- Appearance, Psycholgical-Tolerance and sociological-
The following are the traits of Big-5 personality
1. Openness Traits: The accessment of openness traits shows that how the person is
* having variety of interest
* with degree of intellectual curiosity
* able to enjoy the new experiences
* able to learn new changes & concept
2. Conscientionsuess: The accessment of this trait show that how the person is able to
* Compete with life challenges
* control self discipline
* To act dutifully
* To plan & to organize
* Work independently
* To do hard work
3. Extraversion: The assessment of this trait shows that how the person.
* is energetic
* has positive emotions
* has Assertiveness
* is sociable
* is talkative
* is fun loving
* has friendly nature or has tendency to make new friends
* able to get affection from other
4. Agreeableness: The assessment of this trait shows that how
* has sense of cooperation
* is systematic
* is kind
* is friendly
* is gentle
5. Neuroticism: The assessment of this trait shows. How the
* has emotional stability
* is able to control anger
* is able to control the level of anxiety
The word motivation is derived from the latin word “movere” which means to move so in the condition of motivation an individual is moved by internal & external forces towards the goal. It is widely accepted that “Miracle is possibal only when you are motivated” It is nothing but arousing Sustaining and regulating the activity. No learning is successful unless it is motivated enough. In sports, the role of teacher and coachs are not to teach, train the athlete but motivate to leaan.
Q.4. Enlist the different motivational techniques used in sports and explain any four techniques in detail.
Ans. Following are the motivational techniques used in sports Evaluation, variety, Role of spectators. Criticism. Moderen equipment, Length of practiee, level of aspiration/Goal setting Innovative curriculum, Reward pushiment, Praise Appriciation, Competition feedback, self appraisal, social pressure, Grading and reward, Success Aehievment, Role of media “Motivation is the general level of arousal to action in an individual”. Following mentioned techniques of motivations are applied on sportspersons, which can enable them to achieve the top position in the field of sports and games.
(i) Evaluation :- Evaluation make and aware the sportsmen from his abilities and motivate him/her for higher position.
(ii) Variety :- Variety in the training programe make the practice more interesting and always to motivate the sportsman to perform better to best.
(iii) Role of Spectators :- The presence of audience / spectators help to sportsman to perform in dynamic form too.
(iv) Criticism :- Criticism for the poor performance of an athlete motivate to perform better.
(v) Cash Prizes, Scholoarship etc. :- Good incentive to the sports persons always motivate and strives hard to achieve better in the competitions.
(vi) Latest Equipments :- Use of latest equipments in training make the training more interesting and motivated the athlete to achieve the goal.
(vii) Practice Session :- By reducing the length of practice an athlete is motivated to be continue in their training and to achieve the goals.
(viii) Resetting of Goal : - Resetting of goal from easy to complex motivate the athlete to continue in training to achieve the goals.
(ix) Awards :- Awards for good performance of athlete motivate him to do better.
(x) Praise :- Praise given by the society for the performance of athlete always motivate athlete to do better.
(xi) Positive Enviornment :- Environment make more interesting by including music audience etc. and interesting environment help to perform better.
(xii) Role of Mass Media :- When the performance of an athlete is telecasted by media he is motivated to perform well, to get praise from the society.
(xiii) Record :- Record always aware an athlete to his current performance and his past performance which help to motivate him to perform better.
(xiv) Jobs :- On the basis of achievement and educational qualifications, outstanding sports persons should be offer good jobs. There are various department — Police, Bank, Railways, Air India etc. offer good jobs. This opportunity is also a motivating force.
(xv) Feed back :- With the help of feedback an athlete can remove easily negative factors from his performance and try to perform better.
(xvi) Sharing Responsibilities :- Sharing responsibilities always help to develop and motivate an individual to perform well.
Q.5. Elucidate the term “Exercise Adherence. Write any two Reason to do exercise.
Ans. Exercise is any bodily activty that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Exercise adherence refers to maintaining a systematic approch to exercise for a prolonged period of time following the intial adoption.
Reasonss to Exercise:
(a) Psychological Reason Superiority, frustration
(b) Biological and physiological Reason -strugle for survival
(c) Social Reason - Cooperation, compete
(d) Economical Reason - earn to live
1. To perform daily task efficiently.
2. To prevent from discase and disorder.
3. To improve working efficiency of all organs.
4. To adjust with working place or society.
5. To slowing down aginy process.
(a) To inoprove working efficiency of all orgens: Through participation of exercise programme, individual learn about body and its functional value in daily life. Exercise help to maintain or increase the efficiency of all organs of the body which helps to lead a happy life.
(b) To perform daily task efficiently: Exercise not only helps to maintain or develope physical fitness of an individual but also helps to develop self esteem, perception, relaxation, Reduce frustration etc which help him/her to perform daily task efficiently.
Q.7 Write any six benefits of exercise. or Enumerate any six Reason to exercise.
Ans. (a) Prevention from major disceases like coronary heart disease, diabetes etc.
(b) Helpful to improve personality.
(c) Helpful to improve the working of various system such as cardio vascular system, digestive system etc.
(d) Helpful to improve physical fitness as well as health related fitness.
(e) Helpful to improve group behavirous, attention and concentration.
(f) Help to make good habits such as discipline, hard working etc.
Q.8. Write the meaning and concept of aggression Describe the types of aggression in sports .
Meaning—Any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to harm another either physically or psychologically intentionally or unintionally.
Concept— Different psylologists have given different meaning to the term agression. As per instinct theory, agression is an inbuilt emotion in human being, as per social learning theory, it is acquired. Frustration theory point out that frustration is the cause of agression. There are three types of Aggression in sports.
(a) Hostile Aggression: Any physical behaviour which is aimed to physically injured the living being intentionally is known a Hostile Aggression.
(b) Instrumental Aggression: Any physical behavior which is aimed to achieve high performance but unintentionally physically harm to the living being is known as instrumental Aggression.
(c) Assertive Aggression: Any verbal behaviour under the Rules & Regulation of the sport which is used to harm psychological to living being. In this only legitimate forces are used.
Q.9 What do you understand by stress?
Ans. It is the state in which homeostatis of our body get disturbed due to any physical, mental and emotional demand.
Q.10 Write the types of stress.
Ans.1.acute Stress :- That type of stress generate for very short period but the intensity of the stress is very high. It causes less harm.
Q.11. Write the types of anxiety.
i) State Anxiety : that type of anxiety generate in a particular situation.
ii) Parmament (trait) Anxiety :- that type of anxiety always associated with an individual in all the situation that is more harmful than the state anxiety.
Q.12 State coping strategies?
Ans. Coping strategies means behavioural changes & phychological changes, those are required to adjust an individual in the stressful condition.
Q.13 What do you understand by personality?
Ans. The word personality is taken by the latin word “persona” which means “the mask”. So personality is mask that is worm by an individual to deal by the society or the environment. Personality covers all the physical, mental social, emotional, Interest & behavioural qualities of an individual.
Q.14 Define the personality?
Ans. “It is the most characterstics integration of an individual’s structure, mode of behaviour, interest, attitudes, capacities, aptitudes, and abilities. “Personality is the sum total of all biological innate disposition inpulses, tendencies, appetites and instincts of the individual and disposition and tendencies acquired by experience”.
Q.15 Explain the types of motivation?
Ans. Motivation are two types.
a. Intrinsic motivation :- motivation an individual is forced by his internal forces to achiever the goal. Intrinsic motivational state “an individual is motivated by their own desire not by any external factor” i.e. enjoyment, satisfaction, to show mastry over skills, to display superiority or to get social approval, fame etc.
b. Extrinsic Motivation :- motivation an individual is forced by the external forces to achieve the goal such as prize, praise, scholarship, grade, job, money etc. In the extrinsic motivational state “an individual is motivated by some external factors.
Q.16 Write the types of Body Image?
Ans. Body images are of two types :
a. Positive body image :- an individual has a realistic perception of their body. He accept & enjoy all his physical traits of his body such as shape, color, tone of muscle etc.
b. Negative body image :- accept & enjoy an individual is not satisfied from his body image. He does not the trait of his body such as height, shape, color, performance etc.
Q.17 How can you manage stress?
Discuss the techniques of stress management. Or How can you reduce the stress?
Ans. Stress consists of bodily changes product by physiological, Psychological condition that tend to upset the homeostatic balance. Some below mentions Techniques have positive effect on reducing stress.
1. Accept our capabilities & limits :- an individual has to accept his own capabilities & his limit. Look for the upside in a situation that whenever the most stressful circumstances can be an opportunity for learning or more personal growth. When he accept the reality. he know very well up to which level he can performance things beyond his performance level will not give him stress.
2. Physical fitness :- Effect of stress can be minimised by increase the level of physical fitness of an individual. The goal of stress management is to use strees advantageously, not to eleminate all from one’s life. Too little or too severe stress lowers the performance.
3. Yoga : By the yogic exercises, the level of the stress can be minimized such as pranayanes, dhyan, savasana etc.
4. Psychological strong :- The level of stress & it’s bad effects can be minimised in an individual by make him psychological strong and taking advice of guidance counselor if required.
5. Balance diet :- Balance diet help an individual to avoid the stress condition and to minimize the effect of stress. We have to take plenty of water, minerals & vitamins to avoid the stressful condition or to minimize its effects.
6. Avoid the company with stressful people :- To avoid stress it is necessary to avoid the company with people who are already living with stress.
7. Environment :- It we make the environment according to our interest then only & we will able to enjoy the environment which can be made interesting by in ending the various things such as music, Audience etc.
8. Exercise :- Exercise play vital role to reduce stress in our body by producing harmones which helpful for us to keep our self away from the stress.
9. Avoid stressful thoughts :- Stressful thoughts should be avoided, to reduce the level of stress.
10. Relaxation techniques : - Deep Breathing, pranayam, etc. can be used to relax our body to minimize the stress.
11. Self / Auto suggestions :- help to self suggestion or self counselling minimize the stress eg: all is well, Yes I can.
12. Busy Attitude :- Aloneness can increase the level of stress because in the alone condition we can not share our views / thoughts about the stress or the source of stress. So to avoid the stress or to minimize the bad effects of stress, keep ourself busy by various life skills.
13. Load :- Our daily life load such as training, homework, duties, etc. can increase stress. To change or modify the load/ task can reduce the stress.
14. Education :- Education help an individual to understand the stress, When an individual get all the knowledge about the stress then. It is easy to manage the level.
Physical Education Class 12th